MOLECULAR GENETICS The transmission rules of genetic material are of fundamental importance to the theory of natural selection and to all components of population genetics. It is essential that you have a solid background in the basics of molecular and mendelian genetics. DNA is the genetic material. A phosphate sugar backbone with purine or pyrimidine bases bound to the sugar moiety. In the double helix structure of DNA, A denine pairs with T hymine and C ytosine pairs with G uanine. A:T or C:G pairs are held together with hydrogen bonds, the C:G pairing being stronger than the A:T pairing. The eukaryotic Chromosomes are made up of chromatin which is about half protein (histones) and half DNA. The DNA is coiled around the histones in a nucleosome structure, and these strings of nucleosomes are then coiled upon themselves making the hierarchical packaging of the genetic material very space-efficient. The prokaryotic "chromosome" (usually one per cell) does not have the tight packaging of eukaryotic chromosomes, but is associated with various proteins. The
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