New mutations - genotype frequency of the heterozygote. As...

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New mutations: Although new mutations continually arise, mutation rates are usually sufficiently small that in any single generation their effect on allele frequencies is negligible. As will be discussed in the next lecture, the effect of mutations compounded over many generations can have a significant effect on allele frequencies. Selection (differences in survival or reproduction of different genotypes) Like new mutations, the effect of selection is usually small in any single generation and therefore usually does not affect H-W equilibrium. An exception would be a recessive lethal mutation that would render the genotype frequency of the homozygote = 0 regardless of the
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Unformatted text preview: genotype frequency of the heterozygote. As will be discussed in the next lecture, the effect of selection can have a significant effect over many generations. Genetic drift/Founder effect: For small populations only a small number of individuals pass their alleles on to the next generation. Under these circumstances, chance fluctuations in the alleles that are transmitted can cause significant changes in allele frequency. These effects are usually insignificant for large populations such as in the U.S....
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