PATHOGENESI2 - Bacillus spores are inhaled and ingested by...

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PATHOGENESIS: Anthrax infections result only if the bacteria produce a i) capsule and ii) exotoxins. The capsule allows the bacteria to survive phagocytosis. Three exotoxins (all of which are required for virulence) include: 1. edema factor (adenylate cyclase) 2. protective antigen factor 3. lethal factor. Anthrax infections are classified by route of entry: 1. Cutaneous anthrax; Bacillus spores enter the skin through a cut or animal bite and germinate. A small red lesion develops after 1-7 days, eventually producing local necrosis (the "black eschar"). Spread of the bacteria causes regional lymph tenderness which may be followed by a toxic septicemia and death. Only about 5% of cutaneous infections become septic. 2. Inhalation anthrax;
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Unformatted text preview: Bacillus spores are inhaled and ingested by aveolar macrophages. These cells carry the bacteria to the regional lymph nodes, causing necrotic hemorrhaging which leads to death. 3. Gastrointestinal anthrax; ingestion of contaminated meat produces systemic symptoms which can lead to death. Mortality by gastrointestinal anthrax may be 50%. B. cereus food poisoning results from the ingestion of preformed enterotoxins, producing predominantly vomiting and diarrhea. The vomiting form is most often associated with ingestion of a heat stable toxin from contaminated rice, while the diarrheal form is most often associated with ingestion of a heat labile toxin from contaminated meat or vegetables....
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PATHOGENESI2 - Bacillus spores are inhaled and ingested by...

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