SURFACE LAYERS - SURFACE LAYERS Bacteria possess several...

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SURFACE LAYERS Bacteria possess several distinct surface layers that can enhance their pathogenicity. These layers are outlined below: 1. Capsules : This type of surface layer is composed primary of high molecular weight polysaccharides. If the layer is strongly adhered to the cell wall, it is called a capsule; if not, it is called a slime layer. These layers provide resistance to phagocytosis and serve as antigenic determinants. The production of capsules is genetically and phenotypically controlled. 2. Cell wall : The cell wall is the basis for classification of bacteria according to the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan external to the cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan located between the cytoplasmic membrane and a second membrane called the outer membrane. This region is known as the periplasmic space. Other important constituents of the cell wall include the following: o Peptidoglycan : This is a polymer of alternating
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SURFACE LAYERS - SURFACE LAYERS Bacteria possess several...

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