While Gould and Lewontin

While Gould and Lewontin - strategies and frequencies of...

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While Gould and Lewontin (and many others) have criticized optimal models, the builders of optimal model (e.g., John Maynard-Smith, Univ. Sussex) argue that the models do not assume that the organisms are optimal (because there are constraints on evolution of traits), but by treating the problem as an optimality issue, it can tell you what kinds of behaviors might evolve. Two general type of optimal models: frequency independent models are designed independent of what other strategies are doing, and seek to define the conditions which might influence behavior (recall the "optimal foraging" model we described in the adaptation lecture where a bird assess, quality, availability, distance to food items, etc.). Frequency dependent models are ones where the strategy of one type depends on the
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Unformatted text preview: strategies and frequencies of other types in the population. The general approach is to look for Evolutionary Stable Strategies (ESS) = a strategy that, if adopted by all, cannot be "invaded" by a mutant strategy. Here a strategy = the behavior of an individual in a certain situation. These types of model apply nicely to ritualized behaviors , distinct display behaviors which take the place of aggressive interactions. Maynard-Smith's approach involves: H = hawk who fights until the opponent retreats or will continue fighting injured with cost C D = dove who displays but will retreat if the opponent escalates V = payoff of winning an encounter C = cost of losing an encounter These values can be put into a payoff matrix: In encounter with: H D Payoff to: H 1/2 (V-C) V D 0 V/2...
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