G - transcription factors (i.e. gene expression) g. Detail...

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G-proteins - more recently, G-proteins were discovered - act as intermediate messenger between many receptors and their 2nd Messenger Enzymes - H+R > activated G-protein >>> 2nd Messenger >>>>> Response -"G-Protein Coupled Receptors" e. Second Messenger activated cellular response - activation of Protein Kinase leads to modification by phosphorylation - release of Ca++ into cytoplasm leads to many possible reactions f. Detail Example 1. cAMP pathway - Receptor >>> G-protein >>> adenylate cyclase [ATP >> cAMP] - cAMP >>> protein kinase (PKA) >>> phosphorylation >>> activation - PKA targets may be cytosolic proteins (biochem. regulation) or
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Unformatted text preview: transcription factors (i.e. gene expression) g. Detail Example 2. IP3 and Calcium - Receptor >>> G-protein >>> phospholipase C (PIP >> IP3 + DAG)- IP3 >>> Ca++ channels >>> [Ca++] increases - Ca can activate many proteins by binding to them- Protein Kinase C >>> phosphorylation >>> activation h. others Examples, all hormone receptor mediated, could include. .. cGMP, NO, CO i. SIGNAL AMPLIFICATION- One hormone molecule generates many 2nd Messenger molecules- Each 2nd Messenger activated multiple targets- Each target may be an activator, hitting many targets -- i.e. Protein Kinases...
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