Relationship of humans to African apes

Relationship of humans to African apes - "adaptive...

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Relationship of humans to African apes (= chimps, gorillas) and orangutan DNA hybridization indicates that apes are our closest relatives . Human/chimp/gorilla relationships not proven but chimps are most likely our closest relatives. The molecular clock says ~ 5 million years ago the human-chimp line split. While Chimp and gorilla have knuckle walking , the humans posses many traits associated with bipedality : vertebral column, shape of pelvis, angle of femur, foramen magnum at base of skull . Bipedality seems to be a major "innovation" which allowed humans to enter a new
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Unformatted text preview: "adaptive zone". The first human ( Australopithecus afarensis ) seems to have an angle between the femur and tibia (Upper and lower leg) that is intermediate to that of humans and gorillas. The evolution of modern humans from our hominid ancestor is commonly considered as having involved four major steps: evolving terrestriality, bipedalism , a large brain ( encephalization ) and civilization . There are (and have been) several competing hypotheses that have acknowledged these four steps, but put them in a different sequence during human evolution....
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