Terminology - groups because the members of that group have...

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Terminology (See fig. 14.6, pg. 382 and note the different terms used for synapomorphy, symplesiomorphy and that analogy = homoplasy). Monophyletic - referring to a group of taxa descended from a single common ancestor (e. g. angiosperms or seed plants) Apomorphic - a derived character (seeds in angiosperms and gymnosperms relative to ferns) Plesiomorphic - an ancestral character (stomata in angiosperms and gymnosperms) note: apo and plesiomorphic are relative terms: vascular tissue is apomorphic to the monophyletic group above the bryophytes, but plesiomorphic to the angiosperms) Syn - shared Aut - "self", unique to a group synapomorphies are shared derived characters and are what define monophyletic
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Unformatted text preview: groups because the members of that group have the character because they are descended from a common ancestor (seeds in angiosperms and gymnosperms) symplesiomorphies are shared ancestral characters (chlorophyll in the angiosperms and gymnosperms) autapomorphies are derived characters unique to one group (flowers in angiosperms) autplesiomorphies can't exist, by definition Paraphyletic group includes some but not all of the descendants of a common ancestor. Incomplete grouping based on symplesiomorphies (e.g. the non-natural group of ferns and gymnosperms based on the presence of chlorophyll and stomata; angios have these but are not in the group)...
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