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BI 107EnergyEnzymes - Energy Laws of physics are universal...

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1/21/2011 1 Energy and Enzymes BI 107 Dr Potter Energy Laws of physics are universal Energy ability to do work Biological work: active transport, muscle contraction, anabolism Forms of energy: Electrical, mechanical, heat Electromagnetic : used for photosynthesis Chemical : energy of covalent bonds Energy States of energy: Kinetic : energy in use, ie muscle contraction Potential : stored in covalent bonds of organic molecules Measurement of energy calorie : 1 ml water / 1 o C Calorie (kilocalorie) : 1 liter water / 1 o C Nutritional calorie Laws of Thermodynamics First Law = Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed Energy can change forms: photosynthesis is conversion of electromagnetic to chemical Laws of Thermodynamics Cells need much energy as life is mostly endergonic (energy requiring) Cells can’t create that energy Cells need an “ external ” source of energy Electromagnetic (sun) energy for autotrophs Chemical energy for heterotrophs Laws of Thermodynamics Second Law = Law of Entropy – Entropy is “randomness” (least useful) state of energy or matter Anytime energy is used, some must go to increase entropy Energy useage is not 100% efficient Energy cannot be recycled In biology, heat is entropy
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