Chapter 2 - The Atomic Alphabet (MOL S11)

Chapter 2 The - Chapter 2 The Atomic Alphabet CHAPTER 2 THE ATOMIC ALPHABET 2.1 INTRODUCTION What Are Molecules Made Of Atoms provide the alphabet

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Chapter 2: The Atomic Alphabet 1 CHAPTER 2: THE ATOMIC ALPHABET 2.1 INTRODUCTION: What Are Molecules Made Of? Atoms provide the alphabet for making molecular “words.” 2.2 THE COMPONENTS OF MATTER 2.2.1 Mixtures, Compounds, and Elements Matter can be classified into categories of increasing simplicity. 2.2.2 The Periodic Table is the Organizing Principle of Chemistry The complexity of chemical behavior can be organized into trends within the periodic table. 2.2.3 The Elements of Life Calcium and iron are two of the chemical elements that are essential for life. 2.3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND CHEMICAL IDENTITY 2.3.1 The Atomic Realm Describing the atomic realm requires the use of scientific notation. 2.3.3 Atoms Consist of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Atoms are constructed from three smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. 2.3.4 Identifying Atoms An atom is identified by its atomic number and mass number. 2.4 ELECTRON ARRANGEMENTS IN ATOMS 2.4.1 The Bohr Model of the Atom The Bohr model is a simplified description of quantized electron orbits in atoms. 2.4.2 “Building Up” the Chemical Elements The chemical elements can be described by “building” up the arrangement of electrons in atoms. 2.4.3 The Quantum Mechanical Atom A more accurate description of atoms involves the strange properties of quantum mechanics. 2.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
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2 2.1 INTRODUCTION: What are molecules made of? In the previous chapter we touched on the chemical principles that we need to understand how Aspirin works in the human body. Let’s take another look at the molecular structure of Aspirin , which is shown in Figure 3.1. It is drawn as a series of “letters” that are joined by lines. The letters represent specific types of atoms and the lines represent chemical bonds . The Aspirin molecule is constructed from three types of atoms – carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H) – that are joined together in a particular way. In general, a molecule is a combination of atoms that are linked by chemical bonds to form a specific structure . Figure 2.1 An Aspirin molecule is constructed from atoms that are linked together by chemical bonds. Figure 2 shows a different molecule – acetaminophen – which is the active ingredient in Tylenol that you have may also have taken for pain relief. Comparing aspirin and acetaminophen you will notice both similarities and differences. For example, both molecules include a six-sided (hexagonal) ring of carbon atoms connected to each other. Acetaminophen also has a new atomic “letter” – nitrogen (N) – in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. We will see that only a few atoms exist in isolation because most are not stable by themselves. One way that atoms gain stability is by combining to form molecules. Why are molecules so fundamental for chemistry? This question has been eloquently answered by the chemist and author Philip Ball: Molecules are the smallest units of meaning in chemistry. It is through molecules, not
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course MAP V55.0310.0 taught by Professor Tracejordan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

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Chapter 2 The - Chapter 2 The Atomic Alphabet CHAPTER 2 THE ATOMIC ALPHABET 2.1 INTRODUCTION What Are Molecules Made Of Atoms provide the alphabet

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