CHAPTER 4 - Chemistry of Carbon (MOL S11)

CHAPTER 4 - Chemistry of Carbon (MOL S11) - Chapter 4: The...

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Chapter 4: The Vital Chemistry of Carbon 1 CHAPTER 4: THE VITAL CHEMISTRY OF CARBON 4.1 INTRODUCTION: Why are trans fats a health hazard? Chemical bonds between carbon atoms determine the chemical and structural properties of fats. 4.2 ALKANES: Hydrocarbons with Single Bonds 4.2.1 Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon molecules are constructed from only carbon and hydrogen atoms. 4.2.2 Methane as an Example of an Alkane Hydrocarbon Different molecular representations of the simplest hydrocarbon. 4.2.3 The Molecular Structure of Ethane Molecules adopt structures that minimizes their energy. 4.2.4 Naming Alkane Hydrocarbons A convention exists for naming alkane hydrocarbon molecules. 4.2.5 Butane and Structural Isomers Isomers are molecules with the same atomic composition but different structural geometries. 4.2.6 Drawing Hydrocarbons Carbon skeletons are an efficient way to represent larger molecules. 4.3 ALKENES: Hydrocarbons with C=C Double Bonds 4.3.1 The Molecular Structure of Ethene Ethene, C 2 H 4 , is a planar molecule due to the electron density distribution within its double bond. 4.3.2 Isomerization of Alkenes The absence of free rotation about a C=C bond produces cis- and trans-isomers. BOX 4.1: The Chemistry of Vision 4.3.3 Saturated Versus Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkanes are saturated for the addition of hydrogen atoms whereas alkenes are unsaturated. 4.4 ALKYNES: Hydrocarbons with C C Triple Bonds Alkynes contain a strong and short C C bond.
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Chapter 4: The Vital Chemistry of Carbon 2 4.5 CYCLIC HYDROCARBONS 4.5.1 Cyclohexane Cyclohexane is a nonplanar molecule that can adopt a “chair” or “boat” conformation. 4.5.2 The Special Case of Benzene Chemical bonding in benzene involves resonance and electron delocalization around the carbon ring. 4.6 BIOLOGICAL HYDROCARBONS Certain biological molecules (e.g., cholesterol) contain a large proportion of hydrocarbon content. 4.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
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Chapter 4: The Vital Chemistry of Carbon 3 4.1 INTRODUCTION: Why are trans fats a health hazard? Imagine a substance so dangerous to human health that the National Academy of Sciences states that a “tolerable upper intake limit of zero” is prudent. Imagine, too, that Americans eat enough of this substance to account for 2.6% of our daily intake of calories. Don’t you think there would be a huge public outcry? Barbara Maynard, Chemistry Magazine This passage refers to a dietary culprit called trans fats . These fats have received extensive news coverage in the past few years because of increasing concerns about their health effects. Consuming large amounts of trans fats is linked to irritation of the lining of blood vessels and an increased risk of heart disease and. Beginning on January 1, 2006, the Food and Drug Administration has required that all food labels must contain an explicit listing of the trans fat content. New York City has passed a law requiring all city restaurants to phase out their use of trans fats in cooking by 2008.
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course MAP V55.0310.0 taught by Professor Tracejordan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

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CHAPTER 4 - Chemistry of Carbon (MOL S11) - Chapter 4: The...

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