CHAPTER 5 - Molecular Diversity (MOL S11)

CHAPTER 5 - Molecular Diversity (MOL S11) - Chapter 5...

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Chapter 5: Molecular Diversity 1 CHAPTER 5: MOLECULAR DIVERSITY 5.1 INTRODUCTION: How Can We Classify Molecular Diversity? Molecular diversity can be classified according to various functional groups containing heteroatoms. 5.2 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CONTAINING OXYGEN ATOMS 5.2.1 Alcohol 5.2.2 Ether 5.2.3 Aldehyde 5.2.4 Ketone 5.2.5 Carboxylic Acid 5.2.6 Ester 5.2.7 Section Summary 5.3 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CONTAINING NITROGEN ATOMS 5.3.1 Amine 5.3.2 Amide 5.3.3 Section Summary 5.4 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS CONTAINING SULFUR OR PHOSPHORUS ATOMS 5.4.1 Sulfur 5.4.2 Phosphorus 5.4.3 Section Summary 5.5 IDENTIFYING FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN COMPLEX MOLECULES Most biological and pharmaceutical molecules contain several different functional groups.
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Chapter 5: Molecular Diversity 2 5.6 HETEROCYCLES Oxygen and nitrogen atoms can participate in various cyclic molecular structures. 5.6.1 Heterocycles Containing Oxygen Atoms 5.6.2 Heterocycles Containing Nitrogen Atoms 5.6.3 DNA Bases as Heterocyles 5.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY
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Chapter 5: Molecular Diversity 3 5.1 INTRODUCTION: How Can We Classify Molecular Diversity? In the previous chapter we saw that carbon and hydrogen atoms can be linked together to form hydrocarbon molecules in many different ways. Hydrocarbons include single, double, and triple carbon-carbon bonds. Yet when we look at biological molecules or pharmaceuticals such as Aspirin we commonly observe other types of atoms, especially oxygen , nitrogen , sulfur , and phosphorus . We call them heteroatoms ( hetero = different) to distinguish them from carbon. Recall our analogy between words formed from letters and molecules formed from atoms. Adding new letters clearly increases the number of possible words. In a similar manner, adding new types of elements to our “atomic alphabet” will greatly increase the diversity of molecules that can be formed. In fact, the amount of diversity in molecular structures can be so staggering that we need some framework to classify and organize them. One skill to develop when studying any molecule is to look for characteristic groupings of atoms because they provide useful information about the molecules properties. Chemists use the term functional groups to describe these specific clusters of atoms. A functional group is a bonded collection of atoms that contains one or more heteroatoms . Functional groups are useful categories because they behave in a similar manner regardless of the hydrocarbon scaffold to which they are attached. Even before learning about the naming of these groups, you can recognize particular characteristics of molecular structures. As an example, Figure 5.1 compares three familiar analgesics (painkillers): Aspirin , ibuprofen , and acetaminophen . Concept Question 5.1 asks you to study these molecules and identify their similarities and differences.
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course MAP V55.0310.0 taught by Professor Tracejordan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

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CHAPTER 5 - Molecular Diversity (MOL S11) - Chapter 5...

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