CHAPTER 8 - Molecules to Cells (MOL S11)

CHAPTER 8 - Molecules to Cells (MOL S11) - Chapter 8: From...

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Chapter 8: From Molecules to Cells 1 CHAPTER 8: FROM MOLECULES TO CELLS 8.1 INTRODUCTION: What is “Life”? The distinction between living and non-living is not as straightforward as it may first appear. 8.2 PROPERTIES OF CELLS 8.2.1 Classifying Cell Types Cells are typically classified into two groups: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. 8.2.2 How Small Are Cells? Cells are best described on the scale of microns (i.e., one thousandth of a millimeter) Box 8.1: Seeing Cells with Microscopes 8.3 THE MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS 8.3.1 The Cell as the “Unit of Life.” “Living” bacterial cells are able to reproduce in a growth medium whereas “killed” cells cannot. 8.3.2 Molecular Components of Prokaryotic Cells Cells are composed of water, small molecules, and macromolecules arranged in a complex hierarchy. 8.3.3 Structure of E. coli Cells E. coli cells consist of cytoplasm that is surrounded by a membrane and cell wall. Box 8.2: Breaching Cell Walls with Antibiotics 8.3.4 Molecular Assemblies Two important molecular assemblies in E. coli cells are the ribosome and the cell membrane. 8.3.5 Basic Requirements for a Living Cell All cells share key features such as the ability to make macromolecules and generate energy via ATP. 8.4 MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS 8.4.1 Specialized Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells More complex cells are organized into organelles with specialized structures and functions. 8.4.2 Diversity of Cell Types Different types of cells contain different mixtures of biological macromolecules.
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Chapter 8: From Molecules to Cells 2 8.5 BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES 8.5.1 The Phospholipid Bilayer 8.5.2 Composition of Cell Membranes 8.5.3 Crossing the Membrane – Passive Diffusion and Active Transport 8.5.4 Osmosis – Flow of Water across Cell Memebranes 8.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
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Chapter 8: From Molecules to Cells 3 8.1 INTRODUCTION: What is “Life”? In this chapter we make the transition from studying molecules to examining the complexity of living cells. What is the relationship between molecules and “life”? Can we explain all biological functions in terms of molecular structure and function? As we discussed in Chapter 4, many scientists in the early 19 th century believed that molecules alone were not sufficient to explain the functions of a living organism, so they postulated the existence of a “vital force” that was responsible for “life.” In this view, there was a profound distinction between the scientific principles that operated in living matter versus non-living matter. This view was seriously challenged in 1828 by a chemist named Friedrich Wohler (Figure 8.1a). While performing experiments on nitrogen containing compounds, he synthesized a compound called ammonium cyanate (NH 4 CNO) , an ionic species classified as a “salt.” When this compound was heated, it transformed into a well known “organic” compound called urea (Figure 8.2b). Wohler then showed that the urea he prepared in the laboratory was chemically identical to the urea isolated from the urine of his dog. He wrote a
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CHAPTER 8 - Molecules to Cells (MOL S11) - Chapter 8: From...

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