CHAPTER 17 - Protein Architecture (MOL S11)

CHAPTER 17 - Protein Architecture (MOL S11) - Chapter 17:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 17: Protein Architecture 1 CHAPTER 17: PROTEIN ARCHITECTURE 17.1 INTRODUCTION: What Causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic mutation that affects an oxygen transport protein. 17.2 PRINCIPLES OF PROTEIN ARCHITECTURE 17.2.1 The Molecular Architecture of Proteins We can make useful analogies between the architecture of buildings and of proteins. 17.2.2 The Four Levels of Protein Architecture Proteins are described by four structural levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, & quaternary. 17.3 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN PROTEINS 17.3.1 Primary Structure The primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain. 17.3.2 Secondary Structure The three important types of secondary structure are α -helices, β -sheets, and turns. 17.3.3 Tertiary Structure The tertiary structure describes the overall configuration of the entire protein. Box 17.1: What Causes Mad Cow Disease? 17.3.4 Quaternary Structure The quaternary structure is used to describe the arrangement of more than one polypeptide chain. 17.4 THE MOLECULAR ORIGIN OF SICKLE CELL ANEMIA A single amino acid substitution causes the mutated version of hemoglobin to form insoluble fibers. 17.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chapter 17: Protein Architecture 2 17.1 INTRODUCTION: What Causes Sickle Cell Anemia? Over 72,000 children and adults in the United States are affected by a genetic disorder called sickle cell anemia . The term “anemia” comes from the Greek for “bloodless” and refers to a shortage of functional red blood cells that transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Patients with anemia can experience dizziness and difficulties with breathing. One short-term remedy is to breathe pure oxygen from a tank, which temporarily increases the flow of oxygen into the bloodstream and relieves their symptoms (Figure 17.1). The term “sickle cell” was first used in 1905 to characterize the unusually shaped red blood cells that were observed when patient’s blood samples were observed using the microscope (a “sickle” is an instrument used on farms for cutting crops). Normal red blood cells have a round shape with a depression in the middle, like a donut with a filled center, whereas sickled cells are elongated and crescent-shaped. Figure 17.2 shows magnified microscope images of normal and sickled cells. Figure 17.1 A young boy with sickle cell anemia is breathing pure oxygen from a tank to increase the flow of oxygen in his bloodstream. Figure 17.2 Sickle cell anemia is named after the distorted, crescent shaped red blood cells that can be observed using the microscope.
Background image of page 2
Chapter 17: Protein Architecture 3 Sickled red blood cells cause a variety of physiological problems. They break down more easily, leaving a smaller number of functional red blood cells to transport oxygen around the body. They are also more rigid and tend to become trapped in small blood vessels, causing intense pain and eventually damaging the body’s organs. Although oxygen and drug therapy can help to reduce the symptoms of sickle cell anemia, there is no available cure.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course MAP V55.0310.0 taught by Professor Tracejordan during the Spring '11 term at NYU.

Page1 / 25

CHAPTER 17 - Protein Architecture (MOL S11) - Chapter 17:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online