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Unformatted text preview: 1-29-08 CHAPTER 1 Instruments to measure variables Temperature many diff forms of thermometers, from the old standard "liquid in glass" to the high tech electronic Moisture also a variety of instruments covering changes in technology hair hygrometer sling psychrometer electronic Atmospheric pressure is measured with a variety of barometers Wind is measured with anemometers and canes that also cover a wide range of technologies WX.RUTGERS.EDU weather website Remote Sensing Radiosonde taken aloft by balloons and measure temp, pressure, and humidity up to about 30 km (18 miles) RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) WSR57 Weather service radar 1957 WSR88 doppler radars Satellites GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), or Geosynchronous Orbiting Earth Satellite GOES EAST / GOES WEST Atmospheric Structure Troposphere (weathersphere) temp generally decreases with height up to about 30,000ft. but this varies by season and latitude. Top of the troposphere is the tropopause (end of tropopause) lower in winter higher in summer Inversion measured temp increase with height Stratosphere temp increases with height due to the presence of Ozone. Top of stratosphere is the stratopause Mesosphere temp decreases with height and reaches the lowest level of minus 150 degrees F at the mesopause at about 80km Thermosphere (hot sphere) temp may go up to several thousand degrees, but air is very thin Convenient rule about variation of pressure with height accurate up to about 60 miles, says that for every 10 miles of elevation, the pressure decreases by a factor of 10 Sea level approx. 1000millibars 10 miles 100mb 20 miles 10mb 30 miles 1mb 40 miles - .1mb 50 miles - .01mb Densest part of atmosphere is right at the earths surface TABLE 7.2 P 171 is required material ...
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- Spring '08