Chapter 2 bio notes.docx - Chapter 2 I Macromolecules A Macromolecules of life Polysaccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Notes most macromolecules

Chapter 2 bio notes.docx - Chapter 2 I Macromolecules A...

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Chapter 2 I. Macromolecules A. Macromolecules of life Polysaccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Notes - most macromolecules are polymers -Polymers are smaller molecules linked together, cells link monomers by dehydration reactions -cells break up polymers into monomers by hydrolysis reactions Carbohydrates (CH2O) Monosaccharides to polysaccharides Sugars for energy and structure Simple sugars o Monosaccharides: glucose and fructose o Disaccharides: sucrose and lactose A. Polysaccharides •Starch: digestible to produce monosaccharides for energy –Plant energy storage –Potatoes and grains •Glycogen : digestible to produce monosaccharides for energy –Animal energy storage –Liver, muscle Glycogen: highly branched Hydrolyzed to release glucose when needed •Cellulose: not digestible by animals –most abundant organic molecule on Earth –Cable-like fibrils in plant walls –Major component of wood Dietary fiber -structural compound -Parallel cellulose are joined together by hydrogen bonds forming part of a fibril - cannot be hydrolyzed by animals B. Lipids Lipids are HYDROPHOBIC Groups of lipids o Fats and oils a. Energy storage b. Cushioning c. insulation Phospholipids a. Cell membranes Steroids a. Sex and stress hormones Fats and Oils Saturated vs Unsaturated fatty acids Refer to the structure of the carbon chains of the fatty acids
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Hydrogenation-enables a fat to be more solid at room temp which is better for baking/processed foods Saturated- maximum number of hydrogens bonded to carbons Most animal fats Saturated and trans fat contribute to cardiovascular Unsaturated- fewer than maximum number of hydrogens bonded to carbons Most plant fats One or more double bonds Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Triglycerides- glycerol + 3 fatty acids Phospholipid- glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate group Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails Steroids Cholesterol: “base steroid” to form other steroids Anabolic steroids build muscle quickly Synthetic anabolic steroids: variants of testosterone C. Proteins Polymer of amino acid monomers Polypeptides o Amino acids link together by dehydration reactions
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o Arrangement of amino acids makes each one different LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURES Primary structure : sequence of amino acids. Precise primary structure of a protein is not
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  • Spring '18
  • AMARIS GUARDIOLA

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