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4_20_05_216j_rev - 21A.216J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical...

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21A.216J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics 2005/4/20 (W), Week 11, Class 20 Readings Brian Alexander. 2003. Rapture. Handout: Presentation handout by Professor James Sherley Class Business returned first paper Presenter: James Sherley Professor James Sherley, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Biological Engineering Division of Biological Engineering, MIT Cellular and molecular biologist Research: cancer, aging, environmental health and adult stem biology and applications; adult stem cell biology, adult stem cell therapeutics, environmental health research “Playing God or Doing Good: The Stem Cell Debate, Undisclosed” Proposed Outline (we might not get through it) I. Sources of human stem cells A. Embryonic B. Adult II. Framing the moral question III. Message Motivations – see the different groups involved in this debate IV. Disclosing scientific objections – exploration of non-religious, non-moral objections V. Science and public disclosure VI. The human-animal nexus Zygote Æ blastocyst (embryonic stem cells, programmed to give rise to many types of human cells, pluripotent) Æ gastrula Æ adult stem cells: ectoderm—epithelial mesoderm—cardiac, skeletal, kidney, red blood, smooth endoderm—pancreatic, thyroid, lung © 2005 MIT OCW 1
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germ cells—sperm, egg Should we be destroying embryos and using them for research? Sources of Human Embryonic stem Cells 1. In vitro fertilization (IVF) (not so natural) – sperm + egg = IVF embryo, complete nucleus Embryonic stem (ES) cell production IVF embryo Æ dissociate = ES cell culture “convert ES cells to mature tissues” = “CURES” 2. Reproductive cloning (dismissed by most) egg – incomplete nucleus = enucleated egg enucleated egg + complete somatic nucleus = cloned embryo d leads to defects; cloned animals have early aging, early tumors, general defects; main arguments against making humans from this method clones have unexpected, unpredictable defects in their lifespan Therapeutic cloning (“somatic cell nuclear transplant”) cloned embryo d Æ dissocate = ES cell cuture “convert ES cells to mature tissues” = “CURES d ?” cell transfer will not create an immune reaction; involves making an embryo and destroying it what is the difference between IVF and clone embryos 3. (Natural human fertilization in utero—not in discussion) II. Framing the moral question
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