4_25_05_215j_rev - 21A.216J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics...

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21A.216J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics 2005/4/25 (M), Week 12, Class 21 Reading: Lock, Margaret. 2002. Twice Dead. Berkeley: UC California. Handouts: Karen Quinlan, Cruzan cases—legal cases costs of organ transplantation—stats on page 3 to end, allocation of resources, who has access to these resources regional variations—in organ transplantations by state; how the market for organs is run; significant differences are applied, availability issues of class, lack of insurance; very expensive operations related issues to reproductive technologies—who has access, allocation of resources – consistent throughout the time average wait time by region united network for organ transplantation—government contracted—organ transplantation history Movies —list of films that involve transplants Return to Me with David Duchovny, Minnie Driver. John Q , Denzel’s son had a weak heart, needed an urgent transplant and lacked insurance; took the hospital hostage, questions of access, what is the market and the scarcity of the market. 1950s, 60s had horror films—Frankenstein, other people’s material; does there moral character transfer? Western culture—unusual ideas that adhere to genetic, biological material—cultural representations (It would be fun to do a film series.) Dirty Pretty Things . Notion of the hybrid comes up again; people are in between categories (life/death) liminal—between categorical states and creates insecurity Papers: To what extent venture capital has been involved in the enterprise of science? How technologies can define life? How do you define what it means to be alive? think about definitions of life in your paper. bioengineering and stem cell research relevant to organ transplantation; tissue engineering—issues of rejection © 2005 MIT OCW 1
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Student Presentation Twice Dead . Lock. McGill University anthropologist at medical school. Organs come from living cadaver, brain-dead patient Organ transplantation made possible because: - technological innovation: half technological, half human hybrids - organ transplantation required new legal definition of death Why countries define different definitions - Japan—recognized brain death in 1997 legally; as long as families do not overrule wishes of individual; concept of brain dead depends on what individual says prior - North America—organs can be removed from legally dead of person who wishes to be a donor –issue of presumed consent in some European countries, requires explicit opting out o are we sure? can parents overrule in America? need to be clarified. o in cases of uncertainty what happens? family has the choice if you haven’t signed the card. or if you signed the card under depression. issues of competence; a minor is under parent’s responsibility; o Terri Schiavo case—issues of competence, decision-making o state variations; driver license under age signing to donate how to later determine the consent of the individual
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4_25_05_215j_rev - 21A.216J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics...

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