MBI131 Midterm Review

MBI131 Midterm Review - MBI131 Midterm Review Community...

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MBI131 Midterm Review Community Health Perspectives What is community health? Identification of health problems in a specific “community” followed by identification and implementation of solutions to these health problems “Public Health” anchored by scientific field of Epidemiology large number of government and private agencies involved Communities Any group of people that share a common characteristic Center for Disease and Control and Prevention Lead public health agency in US Beginnings in Malaria control and today involved in virtually every aspect of human health Mission- “to collaborate to create the expertise, info, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health- through health promotion, prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness for new health threats.” Classic Greece Emphasis on individuals (cleanliness, exercise/strength) Logical (rather than supernatural) approaches to disease/health Hippocrates Father of Medicine o Good intentions, incorrect ideas o Sickness= imbalance of the 4 humors (phlegm, yellow bile, black bile, blood)
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o Too much blood causes fever so treatment was “bloodletting” o Lasted less than 2000 years First Epidemiologist o Made observations on cause and spread of disease and described them in 3 books o Noticed seasonal effects (air/wind), water sources, personal behaviors, distribution of disease geographically o More correct than ideas about medical treatment Roman Empire Governmental instituted public health measures: o Building codes o Drain/sewers o Street cleaning/garbage collection o Public baths o Aqueducts (clean water supply) o Education of physicians (some believed tiny animals caused disease) Collapse of Western Roman Empire Disease was major factor 500 years of malaria epidemics in Rome o weakened population o 1 st major bubonic plague killed 100 million as people lost faith in Roman medicine- turned to Christian church o spiritual era of public health begins
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Dark Ages (476-1000 AD) all disease seen as punishment “all disease are to be ascribed to demons” – St. Augustine immoral to see one’s own body- use of perfumes by wealthy famine/spoiled food common- wealthy used spices Later Medieval Period (1000-1453 AD) Devastating epidemics such as Bubonic Plague (Black Death) o Government didn’t know how to prevent or treat disease o Spread out of control o “Disease as punishment” still a prevalent idea Black Death (Bubonic Plague) o Mid 1300s o ¼ European population died in 15 years o Evidence that certain cities attempted to limit plague by quarantine- no one allowed in Renaissance (1453-1600) Spirit of inquiry become common Doctors began to distinguish diseases from each other Increased travel/trade/population led to further spread European syphilis epidemic led to beginnings of 3 important community health concepts o Certain diseases can result from particular behaviors- Syphilis comes from sexual contact- not evil spirits o Certain diseases may be treatable- Quicksilver cure
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MBI131 Midterm Review - MBI131 Midterm Review Community...

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