9 - Intersex and John Money The Age of Gonads Rise of...

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Intersex and John Money
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The Age of Gonads
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Rise of Endocrinology Erodes Concept of True Gonodal Sex See articles on Lillie and Goldschmidt for examples of lines research which would gradually undermine sex determinism, and set stage for a much more nuanced, multivariate understanding of sexuality. This multivariate understanding actually encouraged medical intervention, however, and would lead by the end of the 20 th century to a revolt by patients.
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Cheryl Chase
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Frank Lillie’s Freemartin* shapes early grant-making of Sex Committee The hormone concept: mapping the territory between genes and behavior *A freemartin is an infertile female co-twin to a normal male.
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John Money and Gender Studies Studied psychological adjustment of intersexuals and found it good. Developed the concept of gender role and differentiated gender from sex. Developed protocols for management if intersex conditions. Established clinic where transsexuals could obtain sex-reassignment surgery/respected agency and subjectivity of transsexuals. After years of generous support from NIMH and adulation of humanists, Money was denounced by journalist John Colapinto for surgical mutilation and emotional abuse of a child, a boy whose penis had been destroyed by an incompetent surgeon during circumcision and whom Money decided could and should be raised as a girl. Despite castration, the child refused to accept Money’s sex reassignment. Founded Gender Identity Clinic at Johns Hopkins, 1966 “And for every hung-up person in the whole wide universe, we gazed upon the chimes of freedom flashing.” Bob Dylan
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Money in his spaces
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An Examination of Some Basic Sexual Concepts: The Evidence of Human Hermaphroditism (1955) “Our studies of 65 ambiguously sexed people have demonstrated that it is extremely unwise to use a single criterion like gonadal structure or chromosomal pattern in assigning an hermaphrodite to one sex or the other. . . . Likewise with the gonads, the contradictions that may exist between them and other signs of sex are so great that the gonadal criterion should not be the exclusive one.”
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The criteria to be more seriously considered External genital morphology Hormonal sex The gender role established and ingrained through years of living in a sex already assigned
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Gender Role “By the term, gender role, we mean all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. It includes, but is not restricted to sexuality in the sense of eroticism. A gender role is not established at birth, but is built up cumulatively through experiences . . . . a gender role is established in much the same way as a native language.”
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Case study: rearing trumps genes and other determinants The patient was 24 and married. He had lived all his life as a male. Except for a small hypospadiac phallus and fused, empty labioscrotum, he was found to be anatomically and physiologically female, when, at the age of 11.5, he entered a hospital because his breasts
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