Lecture+05_Methods_S

Lecture 05_Methods_S - Quick Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 How is the cerebral cortex organized What are each of the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex what are

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Quick Review 1. How is the cerebral cortex organized? 2. What are each of the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex, 3. What are the major cerebral arteries supplying blood to the brain? 4. Which arteries supply blood to each of the lobes? 5. What are the main categories of neuropsychological research methods? 6. What are the 6 main types of brain injury?
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Neuropsych Methods: Outline I. Neuropsych methods I. Brain injury I. Tumors II. Cerebrovascular accidents/strokes III. Infection IV. Neurotoxins V. Brain trauma II. Visualizing the brain
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Neuropsychological Research Methods Main categories of research methods : 1. Examine the effects of brain damage 2. Correlate brain anatomy with behavior 3. Record brain activity during behavior 4. Examine the effects of stimulating particular parts of the brain
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Brain Injury Six main types 1. Tumors 2. Cerebrovascular accidents (AKA strokes)/disorders 3. Infections 4. Neurotoxins 5. Closed-head injuries 6. Genetic factors
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Brain Tumors Tumor (“neoplasm”[i.e. new tissue]) Morbid enlargement or new growth of tissue Cell division and proliferation is uncontrolled Malignant : Progressive (i.e. keeps growing) Benign : cell growth arrested Still capable of producing neurobiological problems Brain tumors Local Metastasized (i.e. infiltrating)
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Characteristics of Brain Tumors Local tumors arise from any local cells residing in affected organ Blood vessels Meninges Glial cells (Glioma) eg., astrocytomas Ependymal cells lining ventricles Acoustic neuroma (myelinating cells surrounding auditory nerve) NOTE : Cancerous neurons are rare meningioma
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http://www.sd-neurosurgeon.com/diseases/meningiomas.html Before Surgery After Surgery
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Infiltrating tumors Metastasis Circulation and spreading of cancer cells to locations distal to organ/tissue of origin Metastatic tumors in secondary sites are not of the same type as the infiltrated organ/tissue Growth in secondary sites upsets metabolic needs and functions of the resident cells Primary Tumor Secondary (metastatic) tumor Chest
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Cerebrovascular Accidents Cerebral Accident Sudden damage due to disruption of cerebrovascular system Stroke Sudden reduction or loss of Consciousness Sensation Voluntary movement Causes of Stroke: blockade of brain artery (or arteries) Clot (i.e. thrombus – clump of coagulated blood) Embolus (e.g., air bubble or some other particle) NOTE : embolus typically a substance that travels in blood until it creates a blockage rupture of blood vessel(s) Hemorrhage
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Infections INFLAMMATION Invasive event precipitates physiological events that result in Pain Vasodilation (redness) Tissue swelling Fluid build-up (edema) Cell infiltration Cells of the immune system Immune cells produce chemical messengers that recruit more cells change local conditions (e.g., further vasodilation)
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course 830 310 taught by Professor Joannehash-converse during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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Lecture 05_Methods_S - Quick Review 1 2 3 4 5 6 How is the cerebral cortex organized What are each of the 4 lobes of the cerebral cortex what are

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