Lecture+15_learning_mem_S

Lecture+15_learning_mem_S - Learning and Memory Readings...

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Learning and Memory Readings: “Silent Land: The Seahorse & the Almond”
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Learning & Memory: Outline I. Learning II. Memory I. Categories II. Stages III. Amnesia IV. Neural bases of memory V. Short Term vs Working Memory
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I. What is learning? A. Processing of information that has an impact at the physical level e.g., physical changes due to sensory experience A. Dictated by attentional, willful action and optimal levels of arousal
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Mouse raised on a 12hr/day light/dark cycle Mouse raised on 24hr/day darkness 1 st 2 weeks of life Unconscious “learning” that has physical consequences Analysis of dendrites in primary visual cortex Different numbers of dendrites and dendritic spines
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I. Relational learning Connections between stimuli: 1. Between image of object and its purpose 2. Knowledge of spatial arrangements (spatial learning ) 3. Remembering sequences of events (episodic learning ) 4. Recalling the actions of another person (observational learning )
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I. Overview of Learning S timulus- R esponse learning
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Learning and Memory Factors that determine how well something is learned: Repetition – which allows for rehearsal of information or practice Salience – sensory and affective (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] is a single trial learning experience with long-term effects) Temporal characteristics – duration and temporal spacing of exposure to stimuli information
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II. Overview of Memory Most basic categorization: long-term vs short-term Multiple memory systems Different types of memory, different neural processes
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3 Categories of Long-Term Memory Explicit (declarative/conscious) memory : Episodic: personal, autobiographical Your 1 st day at RU Semantic: facts, knowledge Location of car in parking lot, knowledge of bus route to your apartment Implicit (nondeclarative/unconscious) memory : Stimulus-Response, perceptual & motor memories Subconscious operation Talking; driving a car; recognizing face Emotional memory : Attraction, avoidance, fear
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Basic Steps in Formation of Memory Acquisition, Consolidation, Recall (involves retrieval) Short-term (STM) vs Long-term memory (LTM) Acquisition requires STM LTM requires consolidation & recall Amnesia = complete inability to recall
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