Lecture02_full

Lecture02_full - Slide 1 Slide Set 2 Password Npsych1.2...

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Slide 1 Slide Set 2 Password Npsych1.2
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Slide 2 Outline I. Structure of vertebrate Nervous System (NS) II. Cellular components of NS III. Brain neuroanatomy
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Slide 3 Basic structure of a neuron consists of 4 distinct regions: (1) cell body/soma (contains nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondra, etc. – all the cellular machinery most cells contain to produce & prep proteins; has many synaptic receptors on surface to receive info); (2) dendrites (branching fibers that have many synaptic receptors & some have dendritic spines [short outgrowths to increase surface area, & more surface area=more info they receive]); (3) axon (thin fiber that sends out info to other neurons, organs, or muscles; many covered w/ insulating myelin sheath; many branches at ends, with swellings called…); (4) presynaptic terminals (releases chemical messengers here) *can have MANY dendrites, but only 1 axon* This is a motor neuron (located in spinal cord)
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Slide 4 I. Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) : Peripheral nervous system (PNS) : Somatic nervous system : transmits CNS information to musculature Autonomic nervous system : Regulates activity of organs & tissues (e.g., heart, intestines, blood vessels) Sympathetic branch : arousal, “fight or flight”, emergency Parasympathetic branch : “relax and digest”, non-emergency NOTE: this dichotomy is more illustrative rather than practical - E.g., increased parasympathetic activity occurs in response to stress We distinguish NS into 2 parts, largely artificially since everything is interconnected, but useful. Somatic: comprised of axons (long thin fibers of neurons that relays info); sensory info comes into the CNS via this sys, then issues commands for the voluntary muscles to react (motoric output) ANS: controls involuntary muscles Symp: expends energy, while Parasymp conserves energy; again, this distinction is somewhat arbitrary because doesn‟t always follow these rules but is a decent generality (as far as generalities go) 1 of reasons these dichotomies are artificial is because portions of the cells can be in different locations (i.e., cell bodies in spinal cord [part of CNS] while axons/branches are conveyed to muscles [part of PNS])
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Slide 5 Gives an overall schematic view of how these systems are partitioned
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Slide 6 The human nervous system Involuntary muscles such as intestines, heart, stomach
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Slide 7 Quick overview of how spine segregated into regions
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Slide 8 The Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic branch : Derives from cranial and sacral regions Sympathetic branch : Derives from thoracic and lumbar regions Sympathetic : prepares the body for arousal breathing, heart rate, digestive activity forms chain of ganglia just outside spinal cord short preganglionic axons & long postganglionic axons both release the
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Lecture02_full - Slide 1 Slide Set 2 Password Npsych1.2...

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