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# Intro - Introduction to Digital Logic Design and Computer...

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Introduction to Digital Logic Design and Computer Systems Intro to digital circuits The WashU-2 processor Binary and hexadecimal numbers Machine language programs Jon Turner/David M. Zar

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‹#› Introduction Digital circuits are all around us » laptops, cell phones, game systems, music players » televisions, networks, cars, medical devices, appliances Most digital systems include programmable processors » specialized circuits that carry out instructions stored in memory » because circuits can execute many millions of instructions per second, such processors can implement complex functions » maximizing instruction processing rate is key design objective Why digital circuits? » digital circuits treat voltages as discrete values (e.g. “0”, “1”) » key components are logic gates: AND, OR, NOT » results in highly modular circuits, making it possible to assemble systems of high logical complexity
‹#› What Are Digital Circuits? Basic components » AND gate – output is “1” if both inputs are “1” • also, OR gates and inverters » flip flop – stores a single bit of information » by connecting many such components together, we can produce very complex systems Higher level components » memory blocks that store many bits » Lookup tables (LUT) used in FPGAs for programmable logic » crossbar switches – used in FPGAs for programmable wiring AND gate A B A · B A B A + B OR gate A A inverter D flip-flop D >C Q D clk store value of D on rising clock edge

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How Do We Design Circuits? Ultimately, must specify basic components and how they are wired together » schematic design works exactly this way » effective for small circuits, but becomes unwieldy for circuits with thousands to millions of components Modern practice relies on hardware description languages (HDL) » similar to programming languages, but some big differences » does NOT specify sequential execution by a processor » instead, specifies interconnection of circuit elements Simulation used to verify circuit operation
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Intro - Introduction to Digital Logic Design and Computer...

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