MOL CLASS 24 - Pharmaceuticals & Society (class notes S11)

MOL CLASS 24 - Pharmaceuticals & Society (class notes S11)

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1 NATURAL SCIENCE II: MOLECULES OF LIFE Spring 2011 Class 24 – Monday, May 2 Pharmaceuticals and Society Reading: Benderly – Experimental Drugs on Trial Next class: NIH – Introduction to Diabetes OUTLINE (1) (2) (3) Types of pharmaceuticals (4) How are new drugs tested and approved? (5) Experimental drugs on trial
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ANNOUNCEMENTS
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3 REVIEW
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4 C OO H arachidonic acid C OO H O O O O H a prostaglandin molecule CYCLO-OXYGENASE ENZYME
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HOW DOES ASPIRIN WORK? 5
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SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS 6 COX - 1 COX - 2 arachidonic acid protective prostaglandins inflammatory prostaglandins blood clot formation stomach mucus inflammation protective physiological function immune response on all the time switched on or off
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WHY IS VIOXX A SELECTIVE INHIBITOR? 7 C O O O C O CH 3 H O O S O O H 3 C aspirin vioxx
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8 TYPES OF PHARMACEUTICALS (1) (1) DRUGS THAT TARGET ENZYMES Examples: -- Aspirin -- Vioxx -- HIV protease inhibitors -- Lipitor, Crestor
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Unformatted text preview: -- 9 TYPES OF PHARMACEUTICALS (2) (1) DRUGS THAT TARGET RECEPTORS Examples:-- morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone-- amphetamine, methamphetamine-- Adderall, Ritalin-- RU-486 10 TYPES OF PHARMACEUTICALS (3) (3) DRUGS THAT REPLACE / MIMIC BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES Examples:-- oral contraceptives-- insulin 11 HOW ARE NEW DRUGS TESTED & APPROVED? Preclinical research Clinical trials 12 COSTS AND SUCCESS OF NEW DRUGS In 2003, the Center for the Study of Drug Development (Tufts University) calculated that an FDA approved drug costs $897 million (on average) to develop. 13 Should terminally ill patients be allowed to access experimental drugs that have not yet passed full testing and approval by the FDA? 14 THE CASE FOR RIGOROUS TESTING Frances Kelsey 15 THE CASE FOR ALLOWING ACCESS Abigail Burroughs http://www.abigail-alliance.org/...
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MOL CLASS 24 - Pharmaceuticals & Society (class notes S11)

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