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MOL CLASS 21 - Enzymes as Biological Catalysts (Part 2) (class notes S11)

MOL CLASS 21 - Enzymes as Biological Catalysts (Part 2) (class notes S11)

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1 NATURAL SCIENCE II: MOLECULES OF LIFE Spring 2011 Class 21 – Wednesday, April 20 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts – Part 2 Reading: Chapter 19, pp. 16 – 24 Next class: Chapter 20, pp. 1 – 15 OUTLINE (1) Announcements & review (2) HIV replication relies on enzymes (3) Structure and mechanism of HIV protease (4) Stages of enzyme catalysis (5) How does an enzyme recognize its substrate?
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ANNOUNCEMENTS
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3 IN-CLASS EXERCISE
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4 REVIEW – HIV LIFE CYCLE
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5 HIV REPLICATION RELIES ON ENZYMES HIV relies on three key enzymes to replicate itself within a host cells. Each of these enzymes is a target for drug therapy to impede HIV replication. HIV reverse transcriptase HIV integrase HIV protease
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6 HOW DOES HIV PROTEASE WORK?
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7 STRUCTURE OF HIV PROTEASE The enzyme structure was determined by X-ray crystallography . HIV protease structure (JMOL)
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8 CATALYTIC MECHANISM Step 1: Bind the substrate
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9 CATALYTIC MECHANISM
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Unformatted text preview: Step 2: Form the transition state 10 CATALYTIC MECHANISM Step 3: Release the products 11 STAGES OF ENZYME CATALYSIS 12 “STICKASE” – A Hypothetical Enzyme 13 HOW DOES AN ENZYME RECOGNIZE ITS SUBSTRATE? An initial model. Enzymes bind only specific substrate molecules and ignore others – HOW? H COO-HO H 3 C NH 3 + OH CH 3 H COO-HO NH 3 + H 3 C OH CH 3 ENZYME ACTIVE SITE ENZYME ACTIVE SITE (a) (b) 14 HOW DOES AN ENZYME RECOGNIZE ITS SUBSTRATE? A revised model 15 GLUCOSE (a sugar) is the starting point for a metabolic pathway that generates energy in the form of ATP . The first step of this pathway is the addition of a PHOSPHATE GROUP to a glucose molecule. This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme called HEXOKINASE . HEXOKINASE – an example of induced fit 16 HIV PROTEASE USES “INDUCED FIT”...
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