STUDY GUIDE - Midterm 2 (MOL S11)

STUDY GUIDE - Midterm 2 (MOL S11) - V55.0310 NATURAL...

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V55.0310 NATURAL SCIENCE II: THE MOLECULES OF LIFE SPRING 2011 STUDY GUIDE FOR MIDTERM EXAM 2 These questions should be used to guide your studying for the midterm exam. The study questions are the same as the ones posted each week, but they have been re-organized to correspond to the textbook chapters This will help you to align your class notes and chapter readings. Some questions address foundational knowledge and concepts, with important scientific terms highlighted in bold . Other questions ( written in italics ) identify certain skills that you should develop throughout the course. CHAPTER 7: MAKING MACROMOLECULES What’s in Cell? What method is used to separate the components of a cell according to their mass ? How does it work? Why do we use the term macromolecules to describe proteins and DNA within a cell? Monomers and Polymers Use a diagram to illustrate how a polymer is formed from monomers . Label the repeat unit in the polymer. Why must the chemical structure of the repeat unit differ from that of the moment? Draw a diagram to show how the following types of polymers can be made from monomers: polyethylene a polyester 1
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a polyamide What is a condensation reaction ? Why are condensation reactions used in a cellular environment? Skill: Create a polymer structure when given one or more monomer structures. Biological Polymers What are the three main classes of biological polymers within cells? What type of monomer is used to make each of polymer (the linkage reaction and bonds are not required). Draw the structure of an amino acid and label its chemical components. What component varies ? Show how two amino acids are chemically linked together and identify the peptide bond . An extended polypeptide chain is not biologically functional. What must happen to make a functional protein? LAB #5: Polymers Draw the chemical structure of the repeat unit in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). 2
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You used a Borax solution that contains borate ions. What was the role of the borate ions in making the slime and silly putty polymers? What change did you observe when you added water to the dry polymer from the diaper? Explain how this polymer works. CHAPTER 8: FROM MOLECULES TO CELLS Additional Reading: Nicholas Kristof – A Killer Without Borders (New York Times) Walsh and Fischbach – New Ways to Squash Superbugs (Scientific American) Molecules and “Life” In 1928, Friedrich Wohler made urea (an organic compound) by heating a salt called ammonium cyanate (an inorganic compound)? Why did this chemical discovery challenge prevailing scientific ideas? The components of a cell can be described in terms of an “organizational hierarchy.” Briefly describe the different levels of this hierarchy and how they are related. Provide some specific examples. Write a few sentences about our current scientific understanding of the relationship between chemistry,
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STUDY GUIDE - Midterm 2 (MOL S11) - V55.0310 NATURAL...

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