Easterly guest lecture (1)

Easterly guest lecture (1) - Africa Independence Personal...

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Unformatted text preview: Africa: Independence, Personal rule, and the politics of patronage 26 Oct 2011 Chris Blattman 1957 1957-93-.5 .5 1 1.5 2 Average GDP per capita growth 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Average African growth rates (unweighted) calculated using Penn World Tables data for all sub-Saharan African countries with populations greater than 1 million. What we want to explain The answer is in large part political 7 qualities of post-Independence politics 1. Militarization 2. Centralization 3. Personalization 4. Developmentalism 5. Clientelism 6. Kleptocracy 7. Bloatedness Total Military Interventions (Coups d’Etat) in McGowan, P. J. (2003). "African military coups d'état, 1956–2001: frequency, trends and distribution." The Journal of Modern African Studies 41(03): 339-370. 1. Militarization and coups d'état Bates, R. H. (2008). When Things Fell Apart: State failure in Late-Century Africa . Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 1. Militarization and coups d'état “Democracy is not for Africa. There was only one African chief and [so] here in Zaire we must make unity”- Mobutu, WSJ, 14 Oct 1985 2. Centralization of power Parliamentary Presidential systems Bates, R. H. (2008). When Things Fell Apart: State failure in Late-Century Africa . Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 2. Centralization of power Multiparty “One party” or “no party” rule 2. Centralization of power Arguments for One Party Rule • The economic argument: Focus on state-led economic development – The Soviet model – ‘Modernization theory’: economic development precedes democratization • The tradition argument: “Democracy is not for Africa. There was only one African chief and he ruled for life.” Mobutu • The unity argument: “one party, one leader, one government and no nonsense about it” Hastings Banda (July 1964) This was a general tendency worldwide “The commitment to representative government was the first commitment the political left threw overboard: only an educated and informed electorate could exercise its right to vote, and until such an educated and informed sot electorate could be created, a centralized party was necessary in its place.” – Brad Delong, Slouching towards Utopia “L’état, c’est moi.”- Louis XIV, King of France 3. Personalization 4. Developmental state (Crawford Young) • Culture of entitlement • Government expected to provide schools, health care, jobs, infrastructure… • Citizenry expect state-led, not private sector, development “most of our development so far has had to be carried out by the Government itself. There is no other way out… We’ll transform the Gold Coast into a paradise in ten years…”- Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana (1962) 5. Patronage Politics (a.k.a. patrimonialism) (a.k.a. clientelism) 6. Elite capture and the kleptocracy Elite capture “…much of the political instability that characterizes Africa...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course ECON GA.3001.1. taught by Professor Williameasterly during the Fall '11 term at NYU.

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Easterly guest lecture (1) - Africa Independence Personal...

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