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Chapter 03 - Note that the following lectures include...

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Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide Show mode (presentation mode).
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The Cycles of the Moon Chapter 3
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In the preceding chapter, we saw how the sun dominates our sky and determines the seasons. The moon is not as bright as the sun, but the moon passes through dramatic phases and occasionally participates in eclipses. The sun dominates the daytime sky, but the moon rules the night. As we try to understand the appearance and motions of the moon in the sky, we discover that what we see is a product of light and shadow. To understand the appearance of the universe, we must understand light. Later chapters will show that much of astronomy hinges on the behavior of light. In the next chapter, we will see how Renaissance astronomers found a new way to describe the appearance of the sky and the motions of the sun, moon, and planets. Guidepost
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I. The Changeable Moon A. The Motion of the Moon B. The Cycle of Phases II. The Tides A. The Cause of the Tides B. Tidal Effects III. Lunar Eclipses A. Earth's Shadow B. Total Lunar Eclipses C. Partial and Penumbral Lunar Eclipses Outline
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IV. Solar Eclipses A. The Angular Diameter of the Sun and Moon B. The Moon's Shadow C. Total Solar Eclipses V. Predicting Eclipses A. Conditions for an Eclipse B. The View From Space C. The Saros Cycle Outline (continued)
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The Phases of the Moon (1) The Moon orbits Earth in a sidereal period of 27.32 days. 27.32 days Earth Moon Fixed direction in space
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The Phases of the Moon (2) The Moon’s synodic period (to reach the same position relative to the sun) is 29.53 days (~ 1 month). Fixed direction in space Earth Moon Earth orbits around Sun => Direction toward Sun changes! 29.53 days
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The Phases of the Moon (3) From Earth, we see different portions of the Moon’s surface lit by the sun, causing the phases of the Moon.
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The Phases of the Moon (4) New Moon First Quarter Full Moon Evening Sky
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The Phases of the Moon (5) Full Moon Third Quarter New Moon Morning Sky
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The Tides Caused by the difference of the Moon’s gravitational attraction on the water on Earth 2 tidal maxima Excess gravity pulls water towards the moon on the near side Forces are balanced at the center of the Earth 12-hour cycle Excess centrifugal force pushes water away from the moon on the far side
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Spring and Neap Tides The Sun is also producing tidal effects, about half as strong as the Moon.
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