Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Note that the following lectures include...

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Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide Show mode (presentation mode).
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The Deaths of Stars Chapter 13
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As you read this chapter, take a moment to be astonished and proud that the human race knows how stars die. Finding the masses of stars is difficult, and understanding the invisible matter between the stars takes ingenuity, but we humans have used what we know about stars and what we know about the physics of energy and matter to solve one of nature’s deepest mysteries. We know how stars die. The previous chapter made heavy use of theory in describing the internal structure of stars. We tested that theory against observations of clusters of stars and variable stars. In this chapter, we have more direct observational evidence to help us understand how stars die. We still need theory, but images and spectra of Guidepost
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dying stars give us landmarks to guide our theoretical explorations. This chapter leads us onward, not only to discuss the remains of dead stars—neutron stars and black holes— but it also leads us into discussions of the formation of our galaxy, the origin of the universe, the formation of planets, and the origin of life. Our world is made of atoms that were born in the deaths of stars. This chapter of endings is also a chapter of beginnings. Guidepost (continued)
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I. Lower-Main-Sequence Stars A. Red Dwarfs B. Sunlike Stars C. Mass Loss from Sunlike Stars D. Planetary Nebulae E. White Dwarfs II. The Evolution of Binary Stars A. Mass Transfer B. Recycled Stellar Evolution C. Accretion Disks D. Nova Explosions E. The End of Earth Outline
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III. The Deaths of Massive Stars A. Nuclear Fusion in Massive Stars B. The Iron Core C. The Supernova Deaths of Massive Stars D. Types of Supernovae E. Observations of Supernovae F. The Great Supernova of 1987 G. Local Supernovae and Life on Earth Outline (continued)
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The End of a Star’s Life When all the nuclear fuel in a star is used up, gravity will win over pressure and the star will die. High-mass stars will die first, in a gigantic explosion, called a supernova . Less massive stars will die in a less dramatic event, called a nova
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Red Dwarfs Stars with less than ~ 0.4 solar masses are completely convective. Hydrogen and helium remain well mixed throughout the entire star. No phase of shell “burning” with expansion to giant. Star not hot enough to ignite He burning. M a s
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Sunlike Stars Sunlike stars (~ 0.4 – 4 solar masses) develop a helium core. Expansion to red giant during H burning shell phase Ignition of He burning in the He core Formation of a degenerate C,O core M a s
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Inside Stars (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
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Stars like our sun are constantly losing mass in a stellar wind ( solar wind). The more massive the star, the stronger its stellar wind.
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Chapter 13 - Note that the following lectures include...

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