Chapter 22

Chapter 22 - Note that the following lectures include...

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Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide Show mode (presentation mode).
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Venus and Mars Chapter 22
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The previous chapter grouped Earth’s moon and Mercury together because they are similar worlds. This chapter groups Venus and Mars together because we might expect them to be similar. They are Earthlike in their size and location in the solar system, so it is astonishing to see how different they actually are. Much of this chapter is aimed at understanding how Venus and Mars evolved to their present states. Neither Venus nor Mars can tell us much about the formation of the planets. Both planets have evolved since they formed. Nevertheless, we find further hints that the solar system was a dangerous place, with major impacts smashing the surfaces of the planets, a process we first suspected when we studied the moon and Mercury. Guidepost
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This chapter concludes our exploration of the Earthlike worlds. In the next two chapters, we will visit planets that give new meaning to the word “unearthly.” Guidepost (continued)
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I. Venus A. The Rotation of Venus B. The Atmosphere of Venus C. The Venusian Greenhouse D. The Surface of Venus E. Volcanism on Venus F. A History of Venus II. Mars A. The Canals of Mars B. The Atmosphere of Mars C. The Geology of Mars D. Hidden Water on Mars E. A History of Mars III. The Moons of Mars A. Origin and Evolution Outline
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Venus and Mars Two most similar planets to Earth: Similar in size and mass Atmosphere Similar interior structure Same part of the solar system Yet, no life possible on either one of them.
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Planetary Atmospheres (SLIDESHOW MODE ONLY)
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The Rotation of Venus Almost all planets rotate counterclockwise, i.e. in the same sense as orbital motion. Exceptions: Venus, Uranus and Pluto Venus rotates clockwise, with period slightly longer than orbital period. Possible reasons: Off-center collision with massive protoplanet Tidal forces of the sun on molten core
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UV image Extremely inhospitable: 96 % carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 3.5 % nitrogen (N 2 ) Rest: water (H 2 O), hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrofluoric acid (HF) 4 thick cloud layers ( surface invisible to us from Earth). Very stable circulation patterns with high-speed winds (up to 240 km/h) Extremely high surface temperature up to 745 K (= 880 Very efficient “greenhouse”! UV image The Atmosphere of Venus
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The Surface of Venus Early radar images already revealed mountains, plains, craters. Venera 13 photograph of surface of Venus: by clouds in Venus’s atmosphere More details from orbiting and landing spacecraft: After correction for atmospheric color effect:
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Radar Map of Venus’s Surface Surface features shown in artificial colors Scattered Volcanic regions Smooth lava flows
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Lava Flows Young, uneven lava flows (shown: Lava flow near Flagstaff, AZ) show up as bright regions on radar maps.
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Surface Features on Venus Smooth lowlands Highland regions: Maxwell Montes are ~ 50 % higher than Mt. Everest!
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Chapter 22 - Note that the following lectures include...

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