Chapter 23

Chapter 23 - Note that the following lectures include...

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Note that the following lectures include animations and PowerPoint effects such as fly ins and transitions that require you to be in PowerPoint's Slide Show mode (presentation mode).
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Jupiter and Saturn Chapter 23
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As we begin this chapter, we leave behind the psychological security of planetary surfaces. We can imagine standing on the moon, on Venus, or on Mars, but Jupiter and Saturn have no surfaces. Thus, we face a new challenge—to use comparative planetology to study worlds so unearthly we cannot imagine being there. One reason we find the moon and Mars of interest is that we might go there someday. Humans may become the first Martians. But the outer solar system seems much less useful, and that gives us a chance to think about the cultural value of science. This chapter begins our journey into the outer solar system. In the next chapter, we will visit worlds out in the twilight at the edge of the sun’s family. Guidepost
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I. Jupiter A. Surveying Jupiter B. Jupiter's Magnetic Fields C. Jupiter's Atmosphere D. Jupiter's Ring E. Comet Impact on Jupiter F. The History of Jupiter II. Jupiter's Family of Moons A. Callisto: The Ancient Face B. Ganymede: A Hidden Past C. Europa: A Hidden Ocean D. Io: Bursting Energy E. The History of the Galilean Moons Outline
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III. Saturn A. Planet Saturn B. Saturn's Rings C. The History of Saturn IV. Saturn's Moons A. Titan B. The Smaller Moons C. The Origin of Saturn's Satellites Outline (continued)
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Jupiter Largest and most massive planet in the solar system: Contains almost 3/4 of all planetary matter in the solar system. Explored in detail by several space probes: Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Galileo Most striking features visible from Earth: Multi- colored cloud belts Visual image Infrared false- color image
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The Mass of Jupiter Mass can be inferred from the orbit of Io, the innermost of the 4 Galilean Moons: Earth Jupiter Moon Io Relative sizes, distances, and times to scale 1 s corresponds to 10 hr in real time. Using Kepler’s third law M Jupiter = 318 M Earth
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Jupiter’s Interior From radius and mass Average density of Jupiter ≈ 1.34 g/cm 3 => Jupiter can not be made mostly of rock, like earthlike planets. Jupiter consists mostly of hydrogen and helium. Due to the high pressure, hydrogen is compressed into a liquid, and even metallic state. T ~ 30,000 K
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The Chemical Composition of Jupiter and Saturn
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Jupiter’s Rotation Jupiter is the most rapidly rotating planet in the solar system: Rotation period slightly less than 10 hr. Centrifugal forces stretch Jupiter into a markedly oblate shape.
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Jupiter’s Magnetic Field Discovered through observations of decimeter (radio) radiation Magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field. Magnetosphere over
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Chapter 23 - Note that the following lectures include...

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