Session 09 - TEXASfiSTATE I Waxesaw H..- Wm STAR ..,....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: TEXASfiSTATE I Waxesaw H..- Wm STAR ..,. 12-...“ Management 4375 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR &: HUMAN RELATIONS Dr. Christopher Hall Session 9 Work Design Organizations are: - Directing more attention and resources toward helping employees balance work and family demands - Accommodating diverse employee needs by offering flexible work arrangements Driving this work/life tension - Aging population - More women in workforce - More single parents in workforce - Increase in dual—career couples 0 “Quality of Work Life” is a philosophy of management that... - Enhances the dignity of all workers - Changes an organization’s culture - Improves the physical 8: emotional well—being of employees 0 It is based on - Human relations movement of the l 9505 -Job enrichment efforts of the 605 and 705 0 Jobs are the building blocks of all organization structures 0 Job design The process by which managers decide individual jobs and authority - A major cause of effective job performance Attempts to... - Identify the most important needs of employees and the organization - Remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs Benefits to companies ‘ POSITIVE that offer flexible work programs include: - Improved morale - Lower absenteeism and tardiness - Higher recruitment and retention rates - Higher levels of employee productivity 0 Indicators of quality of work life include - Accident rates - Sick leave usage - Employee turnover - Number of grievances filed 0 Not yet known are trade—offs between - Gains in human terms - Improved production, quality, and efficiency Job “Reid-esiiggn The process by which managers reconsider... > What employees are expected to do > How they are expected to do it This is a dynamic, ongoing process! - Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship" to personal and work outcomes Task; identity ' . Task significance . Autonomy . Feedback Job Characteristics Model 0 Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: - Knowledge of results - Meaningfulness of work - Personal feelings of responsibility for results I Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, andjob satisfaction Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?) Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end) Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required bya job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance Job Rotation The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another Job Enlargement The horizontal expansion of jobs Job Enrichment The vertical expansion of jobs Flextime Employees work during a common core time period each day but ha ve discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core Job Sharing The practice of ha I/ihg two or more people split a 4 0—hour—a—week job Flexible Common Common Lunch hours core core I I 12 noon 1 PM. Time during the day Alternate Work Arrangements Telecommuting Employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office o Routine- informationh-a'ndling'tasks - Mobile activities 0 Professional and other knowledge-related tasks rk Arr ' Telecommuting Advantages Disadvantages Larger labor pool Less direct supervision of employees Higher productivity Difficult to coordinate teamwork Less turnover Difficult to evaluate none quantitative performance Improved morale Red uced office—space costs Employee Involvement Program A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success Participative Management A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision—making power with their immediate superiors 10 Em . Involvement .Prdram Exam Representative Participation Workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees management makes decisions involving personnel directors and represent the interests of the firm's employees Quality Circle A work group of employees who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions 11 Variable Pay Programs A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organization measure of performance - Piece rate pay plans - Profit sharing plans - Gain sharing plans Piece—rate Pay Plans Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed Profit—Sharing Plans Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability Gain Sharing An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated 12 Rewarding Employees Employee Stock Own 'eirs h‘i p' Plans (ES'O'Ps) Company—established benefit plans in which employee-5 acquire stock as part of-Iheir benefits Rewarding. Employees Skill—Based Pay Plans Pay levels are based onhow manyskills employees ha me or howmanyjobs they can do Providesrstafii g-‘f'iexi‘biiity- Facilitates communication aCro-ss the organization Lessens “protection of territory” behaviors Meets the needs of employees for advancement (without promotion) Leads to performance improvements 13 Rewarding Employees Lack cit-additional learning opportunities that will increase employee pay Continuing to pay employees for skills that have become obsolete Paying for skills which are of no immediate use to the organization Paying for a skill, not for the level of employee performance for the particular skill Rewarding Employees FLEXIBLE BENEFIT$ Employee-s tailor their benefit " ' " " - 'l‘lrogra'm to meet their A core? 0f essential ' persainaf need-by picking benefits and a menu—like and. chaos-mg: frdm a mgnu selection of other benefit of. bien-iéf'itsdipztions Opt'ons Allow emp oyees to use their tax—free benefit dollars to purchase benefits and pay service premiums P-reclesigned benefits packages for specific groups of employees 14 Employee Recognition Programs Intrinsic rewards stimulate intrinsic motivation - Personal attention given to employee "Imam I GOT (AUG HT 51'. * SMILING! wow-51ml mot-u: mnmrmmmvu um m: We rmr ggwlmmn - Approval & appreciation for a job well done - Growing in popularity and usage Fulfill employees desire for recognition Inexpensive to implement Encourages repetition of desired behaviors Job Characteristics and Job Enrichment - Inconsistent results across cultures Telecommuting - U.S. does this more, but EU workers are inte Variable Pay - Not much research available Flexible Benefits Susceptible to manipulation by management rested in it - This concept is becoming more prevalent globally Employee Benefits - Practices must be modified to match culture To Motivate Employees - Recognize individual differences - Use goals and feedback - Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them - Link rewards to performance - Check the reward system for equity 16 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course MGT 4375 taught by Professor Dr.ann during the Fall '08 term at Texas State.

Page1 / 16

Session 09 - TEXASfiSTATE I Waxesaw H..- Wm STAR ..,....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 16. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online