Session 11 - TEXASfiSTATI—jq UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS H....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: TEXASfiSTATI—jq UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS H. mm.- 312m n, m... Management 4375 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR 8: HUMAN RELATIONS Dr. Christopher Hall Session 11 Organizational Culture 0 “Institutionalization” — A forerunner of culture - When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality 0 Organizational Culture - A common perception held by the organization's members; a system of shared meaning - Seven primary characteristics 1. Innovation and risk taking . Attention to detail . Outcome orientation . People orientation . Team orientation . Aggressiveness . Stability As defined by Edgar Schein - A pattern of basic assumptions invented, discovered or developed by a given group - As it learns to cope with the problems of adaptation and integration - That has worked well enough to be considered valid - Taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems 0 Employees form an overall subjective perception of the organization based on these factors: Sfrenglh Obieclive fadors H. h c Innovation and risk '9 faking ' Alienlion lo delail Perceived as ' Outcome orienlaiion F—Ib- ‘ People orieniafion 0 Team orientation O Aggressiveness - Stability Performance ‘ Organ izaliouul culiure Sali sfaciion l o The opinions formed affect employee performance and satisfaction o Culture is a descriptive term —— It may act as a substitute for formalization o Dominant Culture - Expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization's members a Subcultures - Mini—cultures within an organization, typically defined by department designations and geographical separation o Core Values - The primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization o Strong Culture I I - Core values are intensely held 8: widely shared o Defines the boundary between one organization and others a Conveys a sense of identity for its members a Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self—interest o Enhances the stability ofthe social system a Serves as a sense—making and control mechanism for fitting employees in the organization o Barrier to change - Occurs when culture’s values are not aligned with the values necessary for rapid change 0 Barrier to diversity - Strong cultures put considerable pressure on employees to conform, which may lead to institutionalized bias 0 Barrier to acquisitions and mergers - Incompatible cultures can destroy an otherwise successful merger o Stems from the actions of the founders: - Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they do - Founders indoctrinate 8: socialize these employees to theirway ofthinking and feeling - The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and assumptions 0 Organizational cultures are derived from the founder 0 They are sustained through managerial action Top ' / management Ph'losophy Of Selection : Organizaiion organizalion’s founders crlleriu \ / culture Socialization :- Selection - Concerned with how well the candidates will fit into the organization - Provides information to candidates about the organization a Top Management - Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization :- Socialization - The process by which organizations bring new employees into their culture o Pre—arrival (Anticipatory) stage The period oflearning prior to a new employee joining the organization a Encounter (Accommodation) stage When the n ew employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts th e possibility that expectations an d realityma y diverge o Metamorphosis When the new employee Changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization Socialization process Outcomes Productivity I Prearrival huh- Encounter --h- Metamorphosis Comm ilmenl l Turnover I «- Role management stage - Conflicts may arise from: pThe employee’s work and home life . The employee’s work group and other work >Groups within the organization :- Organization tries to adapt to employee problems o Stories - Anchorthe present into the past and provide explanations & legitimacy for current practices a Rituals - Repetitive sequences of activities that express & reinforce the key values of the organization a Material Symbols - Acceptable attire, office size, opulence of the office furnishings, and executive perks that convey to employees who is important in the organization a Language - Jargon and special ways of expressing one’s self to indicate membership in the organization 0 Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards - High tolerance for risk - Low to moderate in aggressiveness - Focus on means as well as outcomes :- Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture - Being a visible role model - Communicating ethical expectations - Providing ethicaltraining - Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones - Providing protective mechanisms o A Culture That: - Builds on employee strengths A Focus is on discovering, sharing, and building on the strengths of individual employees - Rewards more than it punishes Articulating praise 6: “catching employees doing something right” - Emphasizes individual vitality and growth Helping employees learn and grow in their jobs and careers 0 Limits of Positive Culture: - May not workfor all organizations or everyone within them a Workplace Spirituality - The recognition that people have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningfulwork that takes place in the context of the community - NOT about organized religious practices a People seek to find meaning and purpose in theirwork 0 Defined by Smith and Rayment A state or experience that can provide individuals with direction or meaning Or provide feelings of understanding, Professor John Rayment support, inner wholeness, or "connectedness ” "Connectedness” can he to themselves, other people, nature, the universe, a god, or some other supernatural power I I Dr. Jonathan Smith 0 As a counterbalance to the pressures and stress ofa turbulent pace of life and the lack of community many people feel and their increased need for involvement and connection 0 Formalized religion hasn'tworked for many people ojob demands have made the workplace dominant in many people's lives, yet they continue to question the meaning ofwork o The desire to integrate personal life values with one’s professional life 0 An increasing number of people are finding that the pursuit of more material acquisitions leaves them unfulfilled o Concerned with helping people develop and reach their full potential :- Directly addresses problems created by work/life conflicts :- Four characteristics of spiritual organizations: 1. Strong sense of purpose 2. Trust and respect 3. Humanistic work practices 4. Toleration of employee expression / f /, _,l o What is the scientific foundation? - It is still pending: needs more research 0 Are spiritual organizations legitimate: do they have the right to impose values on employees? - Spirituality is not about God or any religious values - It is an attempt to help employees find meaning and value in their work 0 Are spirituality and profits compatible? - Initial evidence suggests that they are - Spirituality may result in greater productivity and dramatically lower turnover 0 Organization cultures, while strong, can't ignore local culture 0 Managers should be more culturally sensitive by: - Speaking slowly and in a low tone - Listening more - Avoiding discussions of religion or politics a All global firms (notjust US. firms) need to be more culturally sensitive 0 Strong cultures are difficult to change - In the short run, strong cultures should be considered fixed 0 Selecting new hires that fit well in the organizational culture is critical for motivation, job satisfaction, commitment, and turnover 0 Socialization into the corporate culture is important 0 As a manager, your actions as a role model help create the cultural values of ethics, spirituality, and a positive culture 11 ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 11

Session 11 - TEXASfiSTATI—jq UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS H....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 11. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online