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Session+02 - TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY 5mm Men's-in SPAR quuu...

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Unformatted text preview: TEXAS STATE. UNIVERSITY 5mm Men's-in: SPAR quuu: Se 19112 Indmdulehammnd Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study - Gut feelings IntUition - Individual observation - Commonsense \. Systematic - Looks at relationships Study - Scientific evidence - Predicts behaviors The two are complementary means of predicting behavior The Dependent Variables De pendent variable A response that is affected by an independent variable (what 03 researchers try to understand) The Dependent Variables in OB Productivity A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency Effectiveness Achievement of goals Efficiency Meeting goals at a low cost The Dependent Variables in OB Absenteeism The failure to report to work Turnover The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization The Dependent Variables in OB Deviant Workplace Behavior Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and thereby threatens the well—being of the organization and/ or any of its. members The Dependent Variables in OB Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) Discretionarybehavior that is not part of an employee ’5 formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization The Dependent Variables in OB Jo-b satisfaction A general attitude (not a behavior) toward one’s job; a positive feeling of one ’5 job resulting from an eve/nation of its characteristics The Independent Variables Independent variable The presumed'cause of some Change'in the dependent Variable; major determinants of a dependent variable Independent Variables Can Be Organization System-Level Variables Individual-Level Group-Level Variables Variables Understanding Individual Behavior Independent variables that influence behavior 0 Demographics 0 Abilities and skills 0. BackgrOund Can any-manager modify, mold, or reconstruct behaviors? This is much debated among behavioral scientists and managerial practitioners Demographics Personal Characteristics Such as age, gender, race and tenure — that are objective & easily obtained from personnel records i“ O c 9 ? Personal Characteristics Age Older workers bring experience, judgment, a strong work ethic, and commitment to quality Gender Few differences between men and women that affect job performance Tenure People with seniority 'atzajob are more productive, absent less frequently, have lower turnover, and are more satisfied Personal Characteristics Other... Race & Ethnicity Contentious issue: differences exist, but could be more culture based than race based Religion May impact the workplace in areas of dress,.gr00ming and scheduling Sexual Orientation Gender Identity Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual ’5 capacity to perform the various tasks in a job Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities Multiple lntelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural Intellectual Ability Intellectual Ability The abilities needed to perform mental activities A V 0 General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of oVerall intelligence . 0 Wonderlic Personnel Test: a quick 0 measure of intelligence used for ' J recruitment screening No correlation between intelligence andjob satisfaction Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Physical Ability Physical A'b'i lifties The capaciryto do tasks degman-difng .s-tamm, dEXtem‘JZ Strength; and =9; - . simiiar charactefls-flcs ' ' - Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors Flexibility Factors Other Factors Source Adapted from HRMagazme published hythé SUCietyfnrHumah Resource Management, Alexahdna,_\/A The Ability — Job Fit ”'Ability—Job" Abilities 'I Fit Requirements Employee’s Job’s Ability 10 Learning An y relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience ° Involves change - ls relatively permanent - ls acquired through experience Theories of Learning Classical Conditioning (Iva-n Pavlov) A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response Key Concepts - Unconditioned stimulus . Unconditioned response - Conditioned stimulus oConditioned response 11 Theories of Learning Operant-Conditioning .(B.F. Skinner) A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to.a reward or prevents a punishment Key Concepts . Reflexive (unlearned) behavior - Conditioned (learned) behavior . Reinforcement Theories of Learning Social—Learning Theory (Albert Bandura) People can learn through observation and direct experience Key Concepts ~Attehtional processes . Retention processes- - Motor reproduction processes . Reinforcement processes Theories of Learning Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response Key Concepts - Reinforcement is required to change behavior -The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence - Some rewards are more effectiVe than others Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforce me nt Providing a re ward for a desired beha vior Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired beha vior occurs Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a beha vior to cause its cessation Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each "time it is demonstrated Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the beh'aviOr'worth repeating 'but'nOt every time it is demonstrated Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed—Interval Schedule Rewards are" spaced at uniform time intervals Variable—Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses 14 Behavior Modification OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals. in the work setting Five Step Problem—”Solving Model 1. Identify critical behaviors . Develop baseline data . Identify behavioral consequences . Develop and apply intervention . Evaluate performance improvement Problems with OB Mod & Reinforcement > OB Mod ignores thoughts and feelings > OB Mod may not explain COmplex behaviors that involve thinking and feeling > Stimuli may not be consciously given as a means of shaping behavior Modern managers and 05’ theorists are using “cognitive approaches” to shaping behavior 15 "7' Global Implications 0. Intellectual Abilities -S'tructures 6: measures of intelligence generalize across cultures 0 Biographical Characteristics - Not much evidence on the global relevance-of the relationships described in this session - Countries do vary dramatically on their biographical composition 0 Learning -Again, not' much evidence currently exists — we .cannot generalize at this point Summary and Managerial Implications 0 Ability - Directly influences employees level of performance - Managers need to focUs on ability in selection, promotion 8: transfer - Fine—tunejob to fit incumbent’s abilities o Biographical Characteristics - Should not be used in managementdecisions - Possible source of bias 0 Learning - O-bservabl-e change in behavior = learning - Reinforcement works betterthan punishment 16 ...
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