Session+05 - TEXASfi STATE UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The...

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Unformatted text preview: TEXASfi STATE UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The rising STAR of Tum Session 4 Group and Team Behavior Continued) Leadership .Prp-pertm - Size social Loafing The tendency for inditgidua/s to expend less effort when Wbrking.Co/lectiVely"t/1an Wh en' Working in dividua/Iy Performance Other conclusions: - Odd number groups do better than even - Groups of 5 to 7 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups .7 - -- .Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. lVlakethe group smaller 2 Encourage agreementwith group goals 3 Increase time members spend together 4. Increase group status & admission difficultly 5 6 7 Stimulate competition with other groups Give rewardsto the group, not individuals Physically isolate the group 0 Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex. tasks :- Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks 0 Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well Strengths Weaknesses. More complete information More time consuming (slower) Increased diversity of views Increased pressure to conform Higher quality of decisions Domination by one or a few (more accuracy) members Increased acceptance of Ambiguous responsibility solutions o Status and Culture - The importance of status varies with culture - Managers must understand who 31 what holds status when interacting with people from another culture o Social Loafing - Most often in Western (individualistic) cultures o Group Diversity - Increased diversity leads to increased conflict - May cause early withdrawal and lowered morale - If the initial difficulties are overcome, diverse groups may perform better - Surface diversity may increase openness 0 Performance - Typically, clear role perception, appropriate norms, low status differences & smaller, more cohesive groups lead to higher performance 0 Satisfaction - Increases with: —> High congruence between boss and employee’s perceptions about the job —> Not being forced to communicate with lower—status employees —> Smaller group size Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs Work groups Work teams Share information M—{3oal —> Collective performance Neutral [sometimes negative] Synergy—>r Positive Individual F—Accauntabilily—F' Individual and mutual Random and varied ‘4— Sl<ills —> Complementary o Teams typically outperform individuals a Teams use employee talents better a Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment 0 Teams facilitate employee involvement o Teams are an effective way to democratize an organization and increase motivation Problem—Solving Teams Groups of5 to 12 employees from the . . same department who meet for a few ‘4?\& hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment “film-solving Self—Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 1 5 people who take on the responsibilities oftheir former supervisors Self-managed Cross—Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task -Task forces | l | -Committees Cross-functional Virtual Teams 79 Teams that use computer .‘smxs 3. technology to tie together Technology physically dispersed all members in orderto i IS; achieve a common goal Characteristics of Virtual Teams ‘l. The absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cues 2. A limited social context 3. The ability to overcome time and space constraints 0 Context 0 Composition .0 Work Design 0 Process Variables 0 Effective Leadership and Structure - Agreeing to the specifics of work and how the team fits together to integrate individual skills - Even “self—managed” teams need leaders 0 Performance and Rewards Systems that Reflect Team Contributions - Cannotjust be based on individual effort 0 Adequate Resources - Need the tools to complete the job 0 Climate of Trust - Members must trust each other and the leader 0 Abilities of Members - Need technical expertise, problem—solving, decision—making, and good interpersonal skills 0 Personality of Members - Conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness all relate to team performance 0 Allocating Roles and Diversity - Many necessary roles must be filled - Diversity can often lead to lower performance 0 Size of Team - The smaller the better: 5 to 9 is optimal o Member’s Preference for Teamwork Do the members want to be on teams? 0 Freedom and Autonomy - Ability to work independently o Skill Variety ‘ - Ability to use different skills and talents U 0 Task Identity - Ability to complete a whole and identifiable task or product 0 Task Significance - Working on a task or project that has a substantial impact on others 0 Commitment to a Common Purpose - Create a common purpose that provides direction - Have “refleXivin/”(willingness to adjust plan) 0 Establishment of Specific Team Goals - Specific, measurable, realistic, and challenging 0 Team Efficacy 0 Mental Models '1' g - Have an accurate and common mental ‘V map of how the work gets done p/ o A Managed Level of Conflict - Task conflicts are helpful; interpersonal conflicts are not 0 Minimized Social Loafing - Team holds itself accountable both individually and as a team 0 Selection - Make team skills one of the interpersonal skills in the hiring process 0 Training - Individualistic people can learn 0 Rewards - Rework the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts rather than competitive (individual) ones - Continue to recognize individual contributions while still emphasizing the importance of teamwork 10 Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: 1. Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? 2. Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? 3. Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks? 0 Extent of Teamwork - Other countries use teams more often than does the U.S. o Self—Managed Teams - Do not work well in countries with low tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty and a high power distance 0 Team Cultural Diversity and Team Performance - Diversity caused by national differences interferes with team efficiency, at least in the short run - After about three months the differences between diverse and non—diverse team performance disappear 11 o Effective teams have common characteristics: - Adequate resources - Effective leadership - A climate of trust - Appropriate reward and evaluation systems - Composed of members with correct skills and roles - Are smaller - The tasks are whole and significant - Has members who believe in the team‘s capabilities o Managers should modify the environment and select team—oriented individuals to increase the chance of developing effective teams .‘_. .I Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members Both are necessary for organizational success 12 Trait Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual Leadership Traits: traits to differentiate leaders from. non—leader's ' EXtraVerSlon - Conscientiousness - Openness - Emotional Intelligence Limitations: - No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations - Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits - Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders 13 nehaviorai Theories of Leadershi o_ Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non—leaders - Behavioral theory: Leadership behaviors can be taught - Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made Initiating Structure T _ H _ E The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub—ordinates in the W hf l tt ' 't searc or goa a alnmen UNIVERSITY Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings 14 Employee—Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members Production—Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job Draws on both studies to assess leadership style I “C0 ncern for People" is Consideration and Em ployeeeOrientation a “C0 ncern for Prod uction" is Initiating Structure and Prod uction—Orientation Leader’s style is determined by position on the graph I 4— Concern For people Low '4— Concern for production —." High 15 0 While trait and behavior theories do help us understand leadership, an important component is missing: The environment situation in which the leader exists 0 “Contingency Theory” deals with this additional aspect of leadership 0 Three key theories: - Fielder’s Model - Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory - Path—Goal Theory Effective group performance depends on the proper match between leadership style and the degree to which the situation gives the leader control (Assumes that leadership style, based on orientation revealed in LPC questionnaire, is fixed) o Considers three situational factors: 1. “Leaderemember relations”: degree of confidence a. trust in the leader 2. “Task structure”: degree of structure in the jobs 3. “Position power”: leader's ability to hire, fire, and reward o For effective leadership: Must change to a leader who fits the situation or must change the situational variables to fit the current leader 16 A refinement of Fiedler's original model Focuses on stress as the enemy of rationality and creator of unfavorable conditions A leader's intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to that stress Research Support: - Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals - Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people Situational Leadership Model (SLM‘) . A model that focuses on follower “readiness” - Followers can accept or reject the leader Effectiveness depends on the followers’ response to the leader’s actions Leadership behavior: Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating “Readiness” is the extent to which people have the abilityand willingness to accomplish a specific task 17 0 Robert]. House theorized that: 1. Leader must help followers attain goals and reduce roadblocks to success 2. Leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies & subordinate contingencies) Leader— Member Exchange (LMX) Theory o Leaders select certain followers to be “in” (favorites) o Based on competence and/or compatibility& similarity to leader o “Exchanges” with these “In” followers will be higher quality than with those who are “Out” RESULT: “In” subordinates will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction 18 0 These leadership theories are primarily studied in English—speaking countries 0 Does have some country—specific insights - Brazilian teams prefer leaders who are high in consideration, participative, and have high LPC scores - French workers want a leader who is high on initiating structure and task—oriented - Egyptian employees value team—oriented, participative leadership, while keeping a high—power distance - Chinese workers may favor a moderately participative style 0 Leaders should take culture into account 0 Leadership is central to understanding group behavior as the leader provides the direction 0 Extroversion, conscientiousness, and openness all show consistent relationships to leadership 0 Behavioral approaches have narrowed leadership down into two usable dimensions 0 Need to take into account the situational variables, especially the impact of followers 19 ...
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Session+05 - TEXASfi STATE UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The...

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