Session+06 - TEXASfi STATE_ UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The...

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Unformatted text preview: TEXASfi STATE_ UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The rising STAR 011m... Session 6 Power and Politics Conflict and Negotiation- Definition of. Power 0 Power- The capacity that ‘14” has to inf/Hence the. behavior of 73” so that B'aczfs in accordance with 34 ’5” wishes - Exist-s as a potential; or fully actualized influence over a dependent relationship “The Ge neral De pendency Postulate" The greater “B’s” dependency on ‘34 ’; the greater the power ‘34 ” has over “3” - Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes .a manager powerful - Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power —> What Creates Dependency? - Importance ofthe resource to the organization - Scarcity of'the resource - Non—substitutability of the resource Focuses on goal achievement Used as a means for achieving goals Requires goal compatibility with Requires follower dependency followers Focuses influence downward Used to gain lateral and upward influence Research Focus: Research Focus: Leadership styles and relationships Power tactics for gaining with followers compliance 0 Established by an individual’s position in an organization - Three bases: Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear of negative results Rewa rd Powe r Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Legitimate Powe r The formal authority to control and use resources based on a person’s position in the formal hierarchy a Power that comes from an individual’s unique characteristics — these are the most effective - Expert Power influence based on special skills or knowledge - Referent Power influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits a. ways in min irchr _ individuals translate power bases into Specific action-s Preferred Power Tactics by Influence.- Direction Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Pressure Ingratiation Consultation Exchange Ingratiation Legitimacy Exchange Personal appeals Legitimacy Coalitions Choice and effectiveness of influence tactics are moderated by: u Sequencing of tactics Softer to harder tactics work best o Political skill ofthe user o The culture of the organization Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one ’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages Within the organization Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game 0 Politics is a natural result of resource scarcity - Limited resources lead to competition and political behaviors o Judgments on quality differ markedly based on the observer’s perception - “Blaming others" or “fixing responsibility” - “Covering your rear” or “documenting decisions” - “Perfectionist” or “attentive to detail” 0 Most decisions are made under ambiguous conditions - Lack of an objective standard encourages political maneuvering of subjective reality Defensive Behaviors 0 Employees who perceive politics as a threat have defensive reactions 0 May be helpful in the short run, dangerous in the long run > Types of defensive behaviors - Avoiding Action Over—conforming, buck passing, playing dumb, stalling - Avoiding Blame Bluffing, playing safe, justifying, scapegoating - Avoiding Change Prevention, self—protection The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them IM Techniques = Conformity Excuses Apologies Self—Promotion Flattery Favors Association Source Based on E R Sehlenker‘ lnpression Management(Mnnterey,CA BronksiCnle‘ iBfiD)‘W L Gardner and M .J Maninko,"lmpressinn Management In Organizations“JournaiofManagement‘June 1988, p 332‘ and R. El. CIaIdInIfl'indIrect Tactics aflmage ManagementEleyund Elasking‘“ in R A Giaealone and P Rnsenfelrl (edsj‘ lnpression Management in the Organization (HillSElElE‘ NJ Lawrence ErlhaumAssoeiates, 1989)‘ pp 115—71 Job Interview Success - IM does work and most people use it - Self—promotion techniques are important - Ingratiation is of secondary importance Performance Evaluations - Ingratiation is positively related to ratings - Self—promotion tends to backfire Ethical Decision Criteria 0 Utilitarianism - Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number 0 Rights - Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistleblowers a Justice - Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially Politics Perceptions - Negative consequences to the perception of politics seem to be fairly widespread Preference for Power Tactics - The choice of effective tactics is heavily dependent on the culture ofthe country in which they are to be used Effectiveness of Power Tactics - Still open to debate; too little research has been done 0 Increase your power by having others depend on you more 0 Expert and referent power are far more effective than is coercion - Greater employee motivation, performance, commitment, and satisfaction - Personal power basis, not organizational 0 Effective managers accept the political nature of organizations 0 Political astuteness and IM can result in higher evaluations, salary increases, and promotions A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about - Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations a Incompatibility of goals 0 Differences over interpretations of facts o Disagreements based on behavioral expectations “Traditional” view of conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful & must be avoided Causes: - Poor communication éentmfie “Human Relations” view of conflict The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group “lnteractionist” view of conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively 10 0 “Task” conflict - Conflicts over content and goals ofthe work - Low—to—moderate levels ofthis type are “FUNCTIONAL” «- “Relationship” conflict - Conflict based on interpersonal relationships - Almost always “DYSFUNCTIONAL” «- “Process” conflict - Conflict over howwork gets done - Low levels of this type are “FUNCTIONAL” ' ' P 't' Functional Conflict ( 05- Ive) Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance Dysfunctional Conflict — Conflict that hinders (Negative) group performance 11 We will focus on each step in a moment... Stage | Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Potential opposition Cognition and Intentions Behavior Outcomes or incompatibility personalization I Conflict-handling increased ' Perce've‘l intentions Overt conflict Antecedentcondiiions conflict \ .Compefing “my; ' Communication . . e 0 : . Structure Collaborating —> blhavwr . Fe" 0 Compromising 'Other’s Decreased ' 0 Personal variables \ conflict / . Avoiding reaction \ group 0 Accommodating performance! Potential Opposition or Incompatibility 0 Communication - Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” 0 Structure - Size and specialization ofjobs -Jurisdictiona| clarity/ambiguity - Member/goal incompatibility - Leadership styles (close or participative) - Reward systems (win—lose) - Dependence/interdependence of groups 0 Personal Variables - Differing individual value systems - Personality types 12 The Conflict Process .— Stage ..II Cognition and Personalization o Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence-of conditions that create opportunities fOr conflict to arise .o. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility — Intentions Decisions to" act in" a given way '9 Coopflmtiygne'S’s; 13 The Conflict Process — Stage III ‘ @113an The Conflict Process — Stage III 8? 14 USE... Competition o When quick, decisive action is vital (in emergencies); on important issues o Where unpopular actions need implementing (in cost cutting, enforcing unpopular rules, discipline) o On issues vital to the organization’s welfare o When you knowyou’re right o Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior USE... Collaboration o To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised o When your objective is to learn o To merge insights from people with different perspectives o To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus o To workthrough feelings that have interfered with a relationship 15 USE... Avoidance 0 When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing c When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns 0 To let people cool down and regain perspective 0 When gathering information supersedes immediate decision c When issues seem tangential or symptomatic of other issues c When others can resolve the conflict effectively USE... Accommodation o When you find you’re wrong and to allowa better position to be heard o To learn, and to showyour reasonableness o When issues are more important to others than to yourselfand to satisfy others and maintain cooperation o To build social credits for later issues o To minimize loss when outmatched and losing o When harmony and stability are especially important o To allow employees to develop by learning from mistakes 16 USE... Compromise c When goals are important but not worth the effort of potential disruption of more assertive approaches 0 When opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals 0 To achieve temporary settlements to complex issues 0 To arrive at expedient solutions under time pressure 0 As a backup when collaboration or competition is unsuccessful Behavior Conflict Management The use of resolution & stimulation techniques to achieve the desired le ml of conflict 17 The Conflict Process — Stage. IV The Conflict—Intensity Continuum Annihilatory Overt ettorts to destroy the other party conflict Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning or challenging of others Minor disagreements or misunderstandings No conflict Spain‘s: Baeefl anifi: Robbins, Meneging'Organiiauon_af Conflict. A_No_nt'redi{io_nampproaff(- (UppsiSaddte River, NJ Prentice Willa-137114); pp 93—37" amt? ‘IGlasUThe Praaesetaf'cfinflim Escalation and ma Hates afTh'ird Pam'se,“ In'G ELL] flamers andR Paterson tests.) [Coth Management andqu'ugsmat Re'taliohslafiistun KlmNar-Niihnff, 1982'), pp 1 133-40 The Conflict Process — Stage IV Conflict Management. Techniques ,‘Pr'oble'msotying ' per: vii-taste goals a " 2 .Seurce'.:EasBd'Dr_iS, :Htibtziina,_Mi§_naging-Orgamzationei‘ ponflgot' A Nontraditionampproqcn (Upper Saddle River, .NJ Prentice-Hat; 197nm? 59—833 ' 18 Outcomes 0 Functional Outcomes from Conflict - Increased group performance - Improved quality of decisions - Stimulation of creativity and innovation - Encouragement of interest and curiosity - Provision of a medium for problem—solving - Creation of an environment for self—evaluation and change 0 Creating Functional Conflict - Reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders o Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict - Development of discontent - Reduced group effectiveness - Retarded communication - Reduced group cohesiveness - Infighting among group members overcomes group goals 19 A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them Eoutco-m ) tdrah 'i'n-tii for a negotiated agreement Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win —lose situation Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win—win solution 20 Bargaining Characteristic Goal Motivation Focus Information Sharing Duration of Relationships etiatiqn DistributiVe Bargaining Get all the pie you can “fin—Lose Pofiflons Low Short—Term integrative Ba rg_a‘i'n ing Expand the pie Win—Win Interests High Long—Term Source Based on R .J LEWiCki andJ A LMEIEI" NegoiiaiioMHumewnom iL Irwm‘ 1985), p ZED Pariy 3’s Party A's resistance resistance point point 21 The Negotiation Process Preparation and planning l l Definition of I ground rules l Clarification and justification l Bargaining and problem solving l l Closure and I implementation 0 Conflict and Culture -Japanese and U.S. managers View conflict differently - U.S. managers more likely to use competing tactics while Japanese managers are likely to use compromise and avoidance 0 Cultural Differences in Negotiations - Multiple cross—cultural studies on negotiation styles, for instance: > American negotiators are more likely than Japanese bargainers to make a first offer > North Americans use facts to_ ersuade, Arabs use emotion, and Russians used asserted I eals » Brazilians say “no” more often than Americans or Japanese 22 o Conflict can be constructive or destructive :- Reduce excessive conflict by using: - Competition - Collaboration - Avoidance - Accommodation - Compromise o Integrative negotiation is a better long—term method 23 ...
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Session+06 - TEXASfi STATE_ UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS The...

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