Lecture7-BasicGrammar - Basic Grammatical Distinctions All...

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Basic Grammatical Distinctions All words fall into 8 mutually exclusive categories All sentences fall into 4 mutually exclusive categories 8 Types of Words 1. Nouns NOUN - a person, place, or thing. Countable Nouns ( dog / dogs , rice , hair ( s )) , Uncountable Nouns ( water , art , love , sugar ) Proper Nouns ( Names ) – refer to one exactly one thing - Shirley, Mr Jeckyll, Thailand, April, Sony, The Queen of England Possessive ' s - Adding 's or ' to show possession. E.g. John's car, my parents' house Noun as Adjective - use of a noun to describe another noun. The noun "acting as" an adjective. E.g. love story, tooth-brush, bathroom Compound Nouns : A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. E.g. Tennis shoe, six-pack, bedroom 2. Verbs (actions) VERB - an action word. Main Verbs: verbs that have meaning on their own “She slept .” When he hard the starting gun, Vijay sprinted I saw an elephant. We are watching TV. He speaks English. He has arrived . John goes to school. Auxillaries (helping verbs): helping verbs have no meaning on their own Primary Helping Verbs: Be to make continuous tenses (He is watching TV.) to make the passive (Small fish are eaten by big fish.) have to make perfect tenses (I have finished my homework.) do to make negatives (I do not like you.) to ask questions ( Do you want some coffee?) to show emphasis (I do want you to pass your exam.) to stand for a main verb in some constructions (He speaks faster than she
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