BYS201_Cell_Morphology - BYS201 Cell Morphology and...

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BYS201 Cell Morphology and Housekeeping functions Cell is the basic unit of life 2 common properties of cells: 1. Each cell possesses the entire genetic information  of the parent organism 2. Each cell has a membrane or cell wall that separates  its interior from the surrounding environment.
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Multicellular organisms have specialized cells  that carry out functions specific for each type of  the cell. Humans have over 300 distinct cell types all of  them have same set of genes but differ in their  expression. However, all cells express common genes known  as house keeping genes important for basic cell  structure and function.
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Prokaryotes:   Without organized nucleus Hereditary information is stored in circular DNA organized  into a structure called  nuleoid . Pili: attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes Nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) Ribosomes: organelles that synthesize proteins Plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm Cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane Capsule: jelly-like outer coating of many prokaryotes Flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM)
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Many prokaryotes are motile The volume to surface ratio of bacteria is governed by  physical laws and so their size. Use simple diffusion for distributing nutrients throughout  the cell.
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Eukaryotes:   With organized membrane bound nucleus Range from unicellular to multicellular organisms with  billions of cells Have membrane bound compartments called organelles Organelles provide distinct functional environments Increase ratio of surface area/volume and allow the cells to  be much larger Have many active transport mechanisms to move materials  across larger areas.
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Animal  vs  Plant  cells In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm) Centrosome ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) Rough ER Smooth ER CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments Microtubule s Microvilli Peroxisome Mitochondrion Lysosome Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin NUCLEUS Flagelium Plasma membrane
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Ribosomes ( small brown dots ) Central vacuole Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Chromatin NUCLEUS Centrosome Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chloroplast Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Cell wall Plasma membrane Mitochondrion Golgi apparatus Peroxisome In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata Tonoplast CYTOSKELETON Plant Cell
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Plants may represent earliest form of  multicellular life.  Why?
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The Structure and Function of Plasma Membrane
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BYS201_Cell_Morphology - BYS201 Cell Morphology and...

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