BYS201_Cell_Morphology_SG_Module_IV

BYS201_Cell_Morphology_SG_Module_IV - BYS201ModuleIV

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BYS201 Module IV Cells Morphology and Housekeeping functions Cell is the basic unit of life 2 common properties of cells: 1. Each cell possesses the entire genetic information of the parent  organism 2. Each cell has a membrane or cell wall that separates its interior  from the surrounding environment. Multicellular organisms have specialized cells that carry out functions  specific for each type of the cell. Humans have over 300 distinct cell types all of them have same set of genes  but differ in their expression. However, all cells express common genes known as house keeping genes  important for basic cell structure and function. Prokaryotes:   Without organized nucleus Hereditary information is stored in circular DNA organized into  a structure called  nuleoid . Many prokaryotes are motile The volume to surface ratio of bacteria is governed by physical  laws and so their size. Use simple diffusion for distributing nutrients throughout the  cell. Eukaryotes:   With organized membrane bound nucleus 1
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Range from unicellular to multicellular organisms with billions of cells Have membrane bound compartments called organelles Organelles provide distinct functional environments Increase ratio of surface area/volume and allow the cells to be much larger Have many active transport mechanisms to move materials across larger  areas. Animal vs plant cells Plants may represent earliest form of multicellular life. Why? Structure and Function of Plasma Membrane Membranes organize and maintain all cells as separate and distinct molecular environments. Overview of functions: Compartmentalization Selectivity barrier Transporting solutes Responding to external stimuli Intercellular interaction Locus for biochemical activities Energy transduction Components of membranes: Lipids: Phospholipids - most abundant, amphipathic, determine the membrane function. ~50% of PM Glycolipids - present exclusively in outer leaflet of PM. ~2% of PM 2
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Sterols - Cholesterol in animals, phytosterols in plants. Very rare or absent in prokaryotes. Flexibility of membranes. Proteins: 12-50 different types Integral proteins Peripheral proteins Glycoproteins - most abundant in membranes Carbohydrate groups to out side. Glycocalyx
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BYS201_Cell_Morphology_SG_Module_IV - BYS201ModuleIV

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