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Unformatted text preview: BYS201 Large-Scale Biology Emerging large-scale tools to study biology need the expertise of engineers and computer scientists. To build machines and robots with micro and nanoscale capability and data that requires complex mathematical analysis involving signal processing, pattern recognition, supervised machine training and hierarchical clustering. Microarrays : An important new tool to study large-scale biological investigations. Microarrays consist of glass slides with spotted biological molecules (DNA fragments, proteins, peptides, small molecules etc.) for systematic biological research. DNA microchips : Contain 100s to 1000s of DNA fragments or oligonucleotides representing sequences for genes. DNA chips can be used to observe expression of many genes or find differences in gene expression from mutated versus normal genes. E.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 To determine the differences in the gene expression, first RNA from each sample is converted into cDNA and labeled with different fluorescent dyes. Red dye for RNA from the normal individual and green dye for RNA from the individual with cancer. Each labeled cDNA is then hybridized to spotted DNA fragments on the slide, washed and scanned. If there is no mutation in the gene then both red and green labeled cDNAs will bind equally well to the corresponding gene fragment on the chip and give out equal amounts of fluorescence....
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- Spring '09