304%20Oct%206%20%28Air%20Pollution%29%20students

304%20Oct%206%20%28Air%20Pollution%29%20students - HSCI...

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HSCI 304: Perspectives on Environmental Health October 6, 2011 Air Pollution
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Announcement Homework 1 is due Wednesday, October 19 th , by 5:00 pm 2 ways to turn it in: WebCT, under the Assignments tab In my office (if I’m not in, slide it under my door) PLEASE TURN IN ONLY ONE COPY
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What is air pollution? “…a state of the atmosphere in which substances that  harm human or plant health or corrode materials exist  in concentrations  above their normal or background  levels .”           Steyn and McKendry,  A Citizen’s Guide to Air Pollution *(Does not need to be anthropogenic, or man-made, to be considered pollution) 
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7.6 µg/m 3 12.0 µg/m 3 21.7 µg/m 3 65.3 µg/m 3 Visibility Glacier National Park Malm, Introduction to Visibility, 1999 PM 2.5 =
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Air Pollution Impacts Visibility Damage to materials, vegetation Human health
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Davis, When Smoke Ran Like Water , 2002 1948 Donora, Pennsylvania www.oceanservice.noaa.gov Photo taken at noon, Oct 29, 1948 Donora Steel Mill, 1948, during an inversion
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Davis, When Smoke Ran Like Water , 2002 1948 Donora, Pennsylvania Zinc Mill
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1948 Donora, Pennsylvania Davis, When Smoke Ran Like Water , 2002 20 dead within days 50 dead within a month ~6,000 ill
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1952 London EHP Supp 2001; 109:389-94 3,000 excess deaths in three weeks Initially attributed to an influenza epidemic 12,000 excess deaths over the next three months? EHP Supp 2001; 109:389-94
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Outdoor Air Pollutants “Criteria” air pollutants Particulate matter Ozone Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Carbon monoxide Lead
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Particulate Matter Liquid and solid particles in the air Range from 0.01 to 100 µm in diameter Origin, chemical composition, travel distance all related to size Regulated as mass/volume. –PM 10 and PM 2.5
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PM Sizes EPA, ORD, 2004 EPA, ORD, 2004
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Airway Deposition Parkes 1994 www.na-mic.org
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Airway Deposition Parkes 1994
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All particles are  not the same… NARSTO PM Assessment
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Air Pollution Measurements
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Air Pollution Measurements
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Estimated PM 10 Concentration in World Cities (pop >=100,000) PM 10  (µg/m 3 ) .    5-14 .   15-29 .   30-59 .    60-99 100-254 World Health Organization
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http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/gooduphigh/ Ozone: "Good up high, bad nearby"
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Ground level ozone NO x + VOC O 3 sunlight VOC = volatile organic compounds
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http://www.epa.gov/airnow/archives/2001 Good Moderate Unhealthy for sensitive groups Unhealthy Ozone:  A secondary pollutant
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“Criteria” air pollutants Particulate matter Ozone Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Carbon monoxide Lead Traffic pollution Outdoor Air Pollutants + lots of other pollutants  
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Traffic Pollution: Spatial Gradients Zhu et al., 2004, JAWMA, 52: 1032-1042
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Traffic Pollution in Vancouver Henderson and Brauer, 2005
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304%20Oct%206%20%28Air%20Pollution%29%20students - HSCI...

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