304%20Oct%2013%20%28Pesticides%29%20students

304%20Oct%2013%20%28Pesticides%29%20students - Perspectives...

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Perspectives on Environmental Health October 13, 2011 Pesticides
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Problems Associated with “Pests” Nuisance Damage Crops (food) Structures E.g. termites Goods Human Disease
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Public Health Impacts of Disease Vectors and Hosts Vector/Host Impact Cockroaches Contaminate food, risk factor for asthma Mosquitoes Encephalitis, malaria, yellow fever, dengue, WNV Lice Typhus, relapsing fever Fleas Plague Ticks Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, relapsing fever Rodents Contaminate food, destroy food Moeller, Environmental Health & Frumkin, Environmental Health
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Food Losses Ecobichon in Klaasen (Ed), 2001
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Vectorborne Disease Historically a major threat to human health Relatively well controlled in wealthy countries since WWII Remains a major problem in many low income countries
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Bubonic Plague Europe, 1300s Successive epidemics (“Black Death”) Killed 25 million people ¼ population of Europe Bacterium ( Yersinia pestis ) transmitted from rats by fleas Still ~2,000 – 3,000 cases per year worldwide http://www.cdc.gov Moeller, 2005
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Malaria Annually >1 million people die of malaria 300-500 million cases ~40% of world’s population at risk Caused by parasite species Plasmodium Spread from person to person by mosquitoes (females of Anopheles genus) Four malaria parasites can infect humans Symptoms Fever, flu-like illness, chills, headache, muscle aches, fatigue. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause kidney failure, seizures, coma, and death. WHO, http://www.who.int U.S. CDC
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Malaria WHO Climate Anopheles mosquitoes can survive Malaria parasites (4 species) can complete growth cycle in the mosquitoes Global distribution of malaria transmission risk
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Pesticides
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Pesticides “any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any pest. The term pest means any harmful, destructive, or troublesome animals, plants, or microorganisms.” U.S. EPA
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Pesticides Somewhat unique in environmental health: 1. Designed to kill or harm living things -For most environmental toxicants, toxicity is an unwanted characteristic -For example, asbestos has many useful properties, but it unfortunately also causes cancers and asbestosis. We would prefer it if asbestos did not affect living things. 2. Hazardous substances intentionally added to our environment -Many toxicants are released unintentionally as a byproduct of another activity - For example, we burn fuels to power vehicles and industries, and air pollution is an unwanted byproduct that we would prefer not to release. Moses in Wallace (Ed), 2008
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Pesticides Substances that kill “pests” Insect icides insects Herb icides weeds Rodent icides rodents (rats and mice) Widely used Worldwide, more than 5 billion pounds applied annually A good example of the “trade-offs” in environmental health Benefits vs. adverse effects Robson and Hamilton in Environmental Health (Frunkin, Ed.) Moses in Wallace (Ed), 2008
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course HSCI 304 taught by Professor Allen during the Fall '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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304%20Oct%2013%20%28Pesticides%29%20students - Perspectives...

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