304%20Sept%2029%20%28Risk%29%20students

304%20Sept%2029%20%28Risk%29%20students - HSCI 304...

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HSCI 304: Perspectives on Environmental Health September 29, 2011 Risk
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Overview for Today Risk Risk Assessment Risk Management Risk Perception (& communication) Film: “The Beloved Community” Time permitting
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RISK
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Hazard ≠ Risk Hazard = intrinsic potential of a substance or agent to cause harm Risk = likelihood that a population will incur an increased incidence of adverse effects (e.g. injury, cancer, death, etc.) = ƒ (hazard, exposure, susceptibility) Something can be hazardous, but if there is no exposure, there is no risk. (e.g. age, concomitant illness, allergic / immunologic status, genetics)
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Risk Assessment Essentially asking 3 questions: 1. What can go wrong? 2. How likely is it to happen? 3.If it does happen, what are the consequences? Moeller, 2005
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What is Risk Assessment? Risk assessment is a tool Used to quantify risks Informs policy decisions (risk management) E.g. should we limit arsenic concentrations in drinking water? If so, how much are we willing to spend to reduce arsenic concentrations? Remember, policy is also impacted by public perception of risk (2 nd half of lecture)
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Steps in a Risk Assessment Bartell in Frumkin (Ed), 2005
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Risk Assessment “the scientific analysis and characterization of adverse effects of environmental hazards.” ( understanding ) Risk Management “…activities of identifying and evaluating alternative regulatory options and selecting among them.” ( action ) Impacted by public perception, outcry Stern and Fineberg, Understanding Risk , 1996 Risk Assessment vs. Risk Management
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Risk Assessment vs. Risk Management National Research Council, 1983
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Steps in a Risk Assessment Hazard Identification “Identifying and selecting the environmental agent(s) and health effect(s) for assessment” Methods Chemical structure, aka structure activity analysis In vitro studies Animal toxicology studies Human epidemiology studies Bartell in Frumkin (Ed), 2005
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Hazard Identification Methods Structure-Activity Analysis System : Basic laboratory tests, computer modeling Time Required : Days to weeks Basis : Structure resembles (positive) or does not resemble (negative) structure of a known toxic agent (Not a definitive test!!) Conclusion : Chemical may be a toxic agent
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Hazard Identification Methods In Vitro Tests System : Cell Culture, Tissue Culture Time Required : Days to months Basis : Chemical interaction with critical cellular components can cause a response known to result from exposure to toxicants Conclusion : Chemical is potentially a toxic agent
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Hazard Identification Methods In Vivo Tests System : Intact animals Time Required : Months to years Basis : Chemical that causes toxicity in animals can cause toxicity in humans Conclusion : Chemical does cause toxic effects in that species, and is potentially toxic to humans (i.e. Issue of inter-species extrapolation)
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Hazard Identification Methods Epidemiology System : Humans Time Required : Months to lifetime Basis : Chemical that causes toxic effect can
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