Copy%20of%20304%20Sept%2022%20%28Exposure%2c%20Epi%29%20Students

Copy%20of%20304%20Sept%2022%20%28Exposure%2c%20Epi%29%20Students

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Unformatted text preview: HSCI 304: Perspectives on Environmental Health September 22, 2011 Exposure Assessment Environmental Epidemiology Environmental/Occupational Health Methods Exposure Assessment Toxicology Epidemiology Risk Assessment/Management Environmental/Occupational Health Methods Exposure Assessment Who is exposed? To what? To how much? When? Where? How frequently? Toxicology What effect does the exposure have on cells, tissues, organs? What is the biological mechanism of effect? What dose causes what response? What dose is safe? Environmental/Occupational Health Methods Epidemiology What effect does the exposure have on human populations? What is the exposure- response relationship in the real world? Are there especially susceptible groups? Risk Assessment/Management What is the overall health risk to the population? How is that risk best managed? Exposure: Part of the Environmental Risk Model Pollutant Emission s Movement of Pollutants Exposur e Dose Effect after Ott, Exposure Analysis , 2006 Environmental Health Risk Pollutant A is highly toxic. It is released in a manner that does not result in any exposure by humans. Is there any direct risk to human health? Pollutant B is non-toxic (i.e., there is no hazard ). It is released in a manner that results frequent and high level exposures by humans. Is there any direct risk to human health? Four Purposes of Environmental Exposure Assessment 1. To understand the human health effects of a pollutant. (i.e., as part of Epidemiology ) 2. To better understand population health risks from a pollutant that is known or suspected to cause health effects. (i.e., as part of Risk Assessment ) 3. To make decisions about how best to eliminate or minimize health risks. (i.e., as part of Risk Management ) 4. To evaluate patterns, potential future scenarios (i.e., as part of Status or Trends Analysis ) Four Purposes of Environmental Exposure Assessment 1. To understand the human health effects of a pollutant. (i.e., as part of Epidemiology) Example : Does air pollution cause asthma ? To answer, we need to know who is exposed to air pollution and how much theyre exposed to. 2. To better understand population health risks from a pollutant that is known or suspected to cause health effects. (i.e., as part of Risk Assessment) Example : Smoking causes lung cancer. What is the risk of lung cancer in a population due to smoking ? To answer, we need to know who is exposed to tobacco smoke and how much theyre exposed to. Four Purposes of Environmental Exposure Assessment 3. To make decisions about how best to eliminate or minimize health risks. (i.e., as part of Risk Management ) Example : What is the best, most cost effective way to reduce respiratory effects related to air pollution ? To answer, we need to know who is exposed to air pollution, when theyre exposed, how much theyre exposed to, what the source of exposure is, etc....
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Copy%20of%20304%20Sept%2022%20%28Exposure%2c%20Epi%29%20Students

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