toxicology - Toxicology HSCI 304 Bruce Lanphear, MD, MPH...

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Toxicology Bruce Lanphear, MD, MPH Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University HSCI 304
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Toxicology “Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on people, animals, and the environment.” http://www.toxicology.org/
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Toxicology in Antiquity
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History of Toxicology The philosopher, Socrates, was executed using hemlock for teaching radical ideas to youth
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Did Lead Toxicity Cause the Decline of the Roman Empire?
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Mercury Toxicity - The Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland
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Bhopal (Carbide Union) Disaster
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Dose Makes the Poison “All substances are poisons … the right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy.” Paracelsus 1493-1541
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The Dose Makes the Poison A nontoxic chemical can be toxic at high doses. Highly toxic chemicals can reduce mortality when given in appropriate doses (e.g., chemotherapy)
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Terminology Toxin : a toxic substance produced by living organisms (e.g., snake venom, insects or spider venom) Toxicant : a toxic substance that is not produced by living organisms
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Toxic Substances Emissions or unwanted byproducts of industry (“pollution”) Chemicals produced for consumer use (e.g. pesticides, food additives) Natural plant, animal, fungi, bacteria products Natural substances in the earth’s crust (e.g. arsenic, mercury) or atmosphere (e.g. carbon monoxide) Byproducts of combustion Radiation Certain airborne dusts, particles, or Fbers
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Exposure must occur for the chemical to present a risk . The magnitude of risk is proportional to both the potency of the chemical and the extent of exposure . “The dose makes the poison
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course HSCI 304 taught by Professor Allen during the Fall '11 term at Simon Fraser.

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toxicology - Toxicology HSCI 304 Bruce Lanphear, MD, MPH...

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