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Chapter 4 Notes Cont.

Chapter 4 Notes Cont. - Analogy and Homology • Structures...

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9/13/11 Chapter 4 Cont. Evolution Organic Evolution o “decent with modification” (species change over time) Microevolution o A change in frequency of alleles in populations over time Rosemary and Peter Grant o British scientists worked at Princeton o Study population genetics o Study Darwin’s finches Individuals do not evolve, groups as a whole do Macroevolution o Large scale changes that result in extinction and the formation of new species Evidence of Macroevolution: Biogeography The study of the geographic distribution of plants and animals How have organisms dispersed to places with barriers? Volcanic activity, movement of land masses, climatic changes, and geologic uplift create or remove barriers to the movements or animals and plants Evidence of Macroevolution: Paleontology Studies of the fossil record provide direct evidence for evolution Fossils are story replicas, molds or casts of once living organisms
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Unformatted text preview: Analogy and Homology • Structures may be similar in different species • Resemblance may occur when two unrelated organisms adapt to similar conditions o Convergent evolution o Similar structures would be analogous (similar function) o Ex: wings of birds and insects • Resemblance may occur because 2 organisms share a common ancestry o Similar structures would be homologous o Ex: vertebrate appendages figure 4.11 Developmental Patterns • The developmental stages of related organisms retain common features • Early embryonic stages of vertebrates are very similar • Genes controlling development have been conserved Molecular Biology • Closely related organisms will be genetically more similar that distantly related organisms (are going to have more molecules in common)...
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