05_Petrucci10e_SSM

05_Petrucci10e_SSM - CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN...

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97 CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS PRACTICE EXAMPLES 1A In determining total Cl , we recall the definition of molarity: moles of solute per liter of solution. from NaCl Cl mol NaCl L soln mol Cl mol NaCl M Cl ,= 0.438 1 1 1 =0.438 2 2 2 0.0512 mol MgCl 2 mol Cl from MgCl , Cl = = 0.102 M Cl 1 L soln 1 mol MgCl   2 Cl total = Cl from NaCl + Cl from MgCl = 0.438 M + 0.102 M = 0.540 M Cl  1B (a) - 1.5 mg F L 1gF 1000 mg F 1m o lF 18.998 g F = 7.9 10 -5 M F - (b) 1.00 10 6 L 5- 7.9 10 mol F 1L 2 1 mol CaF 2m o l F 2 2 78.075 g CaF 1 mol CaF 1 kg 1000 g = 3.1 kg CaF 2 2A In each case, we use the solubility rules to determine whether either product is insoluble. The ions in each product compound are determined by simply “switching the partners” of the reactant compounds. The designation “(aq)” on each reactant indicates that it is soluble. (a) Possible products are potassium chloride, KCl, which is soluble, and aluminum hydroxide,  3 Al OH , which is not. Net ionic equation:    3+ 3 Al aq + 3 OH aq Al OH s (b) Possible products are iron(III) sulfate,   24 3 Fe SO , and potassium bromide, KBr, both of which are soluble. No reaction occurs. (c) Possible products are calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , which is soluble, and lead(II) iodide, PbI 2 , which is insoluble. The net ionic equation is:   2+ 2 Pb aq + 2 I aq PbI s 2B (a) Possible products are sodium chloride, NaCl, which is soluble, and aluminum phosphate, AlPO 4 , which is insoluble. Net ionic equation:   3 3+ 44 Al aq + PO aq AlPO s (b) Possible products are aluminum chloride, AlCl 3 , which is soluble, and barium sulfate, BaSO 4 , which is insoluble. Net ionic equation:   2 Ba aq + SO aq BaSO s
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Chapter 5: Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 98 (c) Possible products are ammonium nitrate, NH NO 43 , which is soluble, and lead (II) carbonate, PbCO 3 , which is insoluble. Net ionic equation:    2 2+ 33 Pb aq + CO aq PbCO s 3A Propionic acid is a weak acid, not dissociated completely in aqueous solution. Ammonia similarly is a weak base. The acid and base react to form a salt solution of ammonium propionate.       5 2 4 3 5 2 NH aq + HC H O aq NH aq + C H O aq  3B Since acetic acid is a weak acid, it is not dissociated completely in aqueous solution (except at infinite dilution); it is misleading to write it in ionic form. The products of this reaction are the gas carbon dioxide, the covalent compound water, and the ionic solute calcium acetate. Only the latter exists as ions in aqueous solution.         32 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 CaCO s + 2 HC H O aq CO g + H O l + Ca aq + 2 C H O aq 4A (a) This is a metathesis or double displacement reaction. Elements do not change oxidation states during this reaction. It is not an oxidation–reduction reaction.
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05_Petrucci10e_SSM - CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO REACTIONS IN...

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