Lecture_3-2011 - Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 1 Contents 3-1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 1 Contents 3-1 Molecular and Ionic Compounds 3-2 Molecular Mass 3-3 Composition 3-4 Oxidation States 3-5 Names and formulas Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 2 Molecular compounds •Made of discrete units called molecules – atoms held together by covalent bonds. • Chem formula represent molecular compounds. •Info: elements present; relative # of atoms of each element. e.g. CHCl 3 Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 3 Empirical Formula • Simplest formula for a compound. • Give info of type and relative # of atoms. • i.e. simplest whole # ratio of their atoms. • subscripts are reduced to their simplest whole # ratio. • e.g. P 2 O 5 actually is P 4 O 10 • Similarly C 2 H 4 O 2 ; C 6 H 12 O 6 ; CH 2 O all have EF CH 2 O • H 2 O 2 = HO; N 2 H 4 = NH 2 • Does not give enough info about the compounds. Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 4 Molecular Formula: Based on actual molecules of a compound. •Some times EF and MF are identical • e.g. CH 2 O, H 2 O, NH 3 , CO 2 , CH 4 etc. •Generally MF is multiple of EF, e.g C 6 H 12 O 6 . •EF = CH 2 O; MF = C 6 H 12 O 6 . Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 5 Structural Formula • EF & MF give info of combining ratio of atoms in the compound but not arrangement (attachment to each other). • Structural formula give info of how atoms are bonded in molecule. • e.g. C 2 H 4 O 2 • There are 4H, 2C and 2O; • how each is bonded to what? • Can’t get that info from EF or MF. • Another way condensed structural formula . • CH 3 COOH; attachment is still apparent. • For methyl propane, C 4 H 10 can write CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 3 or CH(CH 3 ) 3 Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 6 Structural Representations • main constituents of organic compounds C & H. • C = four covalent bonds. • For complex organic compounds: • C & H are not shown in the formulas. • Lines are drawn to indicate chemical bonds • carbon atom exists where a line ends or meet another line. • Each C has enough H atoms to satisfy the C atoms valence. • Spatial arrangement of molecule: ball & stick model – Ball = atoms & stick = bonds (Not accurate) • space filling models: actual contact of atoms with actual size and shape. Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 7 Molecular compounds Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 8 Standard color scheme Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 9 Some molecules H 2 O 2 CH 3 CH 2 Cl P 4 O 10 CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 HCO 2 H Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 10 Inorganic molecules S 8 P 4 Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 11 Molecular mass HO O H H HO H OH OH H H OH Molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6 Empirical formula CH 2 O Glucose 6 x 12.01 + 12 x 1.01 + 6 x 16.00 Molecular Mass: Use the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes, = 180.18 Exact Mass: Use the most abundant isotopes, 6 x 12.000000 + 12 x 1.007825 + 6 x 15.994915 = 180.06339 Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 12 Halothane C 2 HBrClF 3 M( C 2 HBrClF 3 ) = 2 M C + M H + M Br + M Cl + 3 M F = (2 x 12.01) + 1.01 + 79.90 + 35.45 + (3 x 19.00) = 197.38 g/mol Chemical Composition Mole ratio n C /n halothane Mass ratio m C /m halothane Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011...
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Lecture_3-2011 - Chemistry 1500 Fall 2011 1 Contents 3-1...

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