Prob_Chap3 - mugged... Constant .5..." the 'Malé...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–11. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: mugged... Constant .5..." the 'Malé 5. Calculate the total number of (a) atoms in one mole— cule of trinitrotoluene (TNT), CH3C6H2(NOZ)3; (b) atoms in 0.00102 mol CH3(CH2)4CHZOH; (c) F atoms in 12.15 mol CZ'HBrClF3. Determine the mass; in grams; of (a) 7.34 mol N204; (b) 3.16 X 1024 02 molecules; (c) 18.6 mol CuSO4-5H2O; (d) 4.18 X 1024 molecules of C2H4(OH)2. The amino acid methionine, which is essential in human diets; has the molecular formula C5H11NOZS. Determine (a) its molecular mass; (b) the number of moles of H atoms per mole of methionine; (c) the number of grams of C per mole of methionine; (d) the number of C atoms in 9.07 mol methionine. Determine the number of moles of Br2 in a sample con- sisting of (a) 8.08 X 1022 Brz molecules; (b) 2.17 X 1024 Br atoms; (c) 11.3 kg bromine; (d) 2.65 L liquid bromine (d = 3.10 g/mL). 9. Without doing detailed calculations; explain which of the 10. following has the greatest number of N atoms (a) 50.0 g N20; (b) 17.0 g NH3; ((2) 150 mL of liquid pyridine; C5H5N (d = 0.983 g/mL); (d) 1.0 mol N2. Without doing detailed calculations; determine which of the following has the greatest number of S atoms (a) 0.12 mol of solid sulfur; SB; (b) 0.50 mol of gaseous 820; (C) 65 g of gaseous 802; (d) 75 mL of liquid thiow phene, (141-148 (51 = 1.064 g/mL). 11. Determine the number of moles of (a) N204 in a 115-g sample (b) N atoms in 43.5 g of Mg(NO3)2 (c) N atoms in a sample of C7H5(N02)3 that has the same number of O atoms as 12.4 g C6H1206 12. Determine the mass, in grams, of (a) 6.25 x 10—2 mol P4 (b) 4.03 X 1024 molecules of stearic acid, C18H3602 (c) a quantity of the amino acid lysine, C6H14N202, containing 3.03 mol N atoms. 13. The hemoglobin content of blood is about 15.5 g/ 100 mL blood. The molar mass of hemoglobin is about 64,500 g/mol, and there are four iron (Fe) atoms in a hemoglobin molecule. Approximately how many Fe atoms are present in the 6 L of blood in a typ~ ical adult? 14. In white phosphorus, P atoms are joined into P4 mole- cules (see Figure 3-4). White phosphorus is commonly supplied in chalk-like cylindrical form. Its density is 1.823 g/cm3. For a cylinder of white phosphorus 6.50 cm long and 1.22 cm in diameter, determine (a) the number of moles of P4 present; (b) the total WS— Chemical Formulas 15. Explain which of the following statement(s) is (are) correct concerning glucose (blood sugar), C6H1206. (a) The percentages, by mass, of C and O are the same as in CO. (b) The ratio of C : H : O atoms is the same as in dihy— droxyacetone, (C HZOH)2CO. (c) The proportions, by mass, of C and O are equal. ((1) The highest percentage, by mass, is that of H. 16. Explain which of the following statement(s) is (are) correct for sorbic acid, C6H802, an inhibitor of mold and yeast. (a) It has a C:H : 0 mass ratio of 3:4 : 1. (b) It has the same mass percent composition as the aquatic herbicide, acrolein, C3H4O. I (c) It has the same empirical formula as aspidinol, CHI-11604, a drug used to kill parasitic worms. Percent Composition of Compounds 19. Determine the mass percent H in the hydrocarbon de- cane, C-1(}H22. 20. Determine the mass percent 0 in the mineral mala- chite, Cu 2(OH)2C03. 21. Determine the mass percent H in the hydrocarbon isooctane, C(CH3)3CH2CH(CH3)2. 22. Determine the mass percent H20 in the hydrate CT(NO3)3 ' 9 23. Determine the mass percent of each of the elements in the antimalarial drug quinine, C20H24N202. 24. Determine the mass percent of each of the elements in the fungicide copperfll) Oleate, Cu(C18H3302)2. 25. Determine the percent, by mass, of the indicated element: I 29. ‘g 30. :-\ :3'1- 2'. 35! 4" 2's... .; ' .56 Chemical Formulas from Percent Composition Two oxides of sulfur have nearly identical molecular masses. One oxide consists of 40.05% 8. What are the simplest possible formulas for the two oxides? An oxide of chromium used in chrome plating has a formula mass of 100.0 u and contains four atoms per formula unit. Establish the formula of this compound, with a minimum of calculation. .Diethylene glycol, used to deice aircraft, is a carbon—hydrogen—oxygen compound with 45.27% C and 9.50% H by mass. What is its empirical formula? .The food flavor enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG) has the composition 13.6% Na, 35.5% C, 4.8% H, 8.3% N, 37.8% 0, by mass. What is the empirical formula of MSG? . Determine the empirical formula of (a) the rodenti— cide (rat killer) warfarin, which consists of 74.01% C, 5.23% H, and 20.76% 0, by mass; (b) the antibacterial agent sulfamethizole, which consists of 39.98% C, 3.73% H, 20.73% N, 11.84% 0, and 23.72% S, by mass. .Determine the empirical formula of (a) benzo- [a]pyrene, a suspected carcinogen found in cigarette smoke, consisting of 95.21% C and 4.79% H, by mass; (b) hexachlorophene, used in germicidal soaps, which consists of 38.37% C, 1.49% H, 52.28% Cl, and 7.86% O by mass. A compound of carbon and hydrogen consists of 94.34% C and 5.66% H, by mass. The molecular mass 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. of the compound is found to be. 178 u. What is its mol- ecular formula? Selenium, an element used in the manufacture of pho- toelectric cells and solar energy devices, forms two oxides. One has 28.8% 0, by mass, and the other, 37.8% 0. What are the formulas of these oxides? Pro— pose acceptable names for them. Indigo, the dye for blue jeans, has a percent composi- tion, by mass, of 73.27% C, 3.84% H, 10.68% N, and the remainder is oxygen. The molecular mass of indi— go is 262.3 u. What is the molecular formula of indigo? Adenine, a component of nucleic acids, has the mass percent composition: 44.45% C, 3.73% H, 51.82% N. Its molecular mass is 135.14 u. What is its molecular formula? The element X forms the chloride XCL; containing 75.0% C1, by mass. What is element X? The element X forms the compound XOC12 containing 59.6% C1. What is element X? Chlorophyll contains 2.72% Mg by mass. Assuming one Mg atom per chlorophyll molecule, what is the molecular mass of chlorophyll? Two compounds of C1 and X are found to have molec- ular masses and % C1, by mass, as follows: 137 u, 77.5% C1; 208 1.1, 85.1% Cl. What is element X? What is the formula for each compound? 13. .45. E35 Iombustion' A 0.1888-g sample of a hydrocarbon produces 0.6260 g C02 and 0.1602 g H20 in combustion analysis. Its molecular mass is found to be 106 u. For this hydro— carbon, determine its (a) mass percent composition; (b) empirical formula; (c) molecular formula. Pam—cresol (p-cresol) is used as a disinfectant and in the manufacture of herbicides. A 0.4039-g sample of this carbon—hydrogen—oxygen compound yields 1.1518 g C02 and 0.2694 g H20 in combustion analy- sis. Its molecular mass is 108.1 u. For p-cresol, deter— mine its (a) mass percent composition; (b) empirical formula; (c) molecular formula. Dimethylhydrazine is a carbon—hydrogen—nitrogen compound used in rocket fuels. When burned com- pletely, a 0.312-g sample yields 0.458 3 C02 and 0.374 g H20. The nitrogen content of a 0.486-g sample is converted to 0.226 g N2. What is the empirical formu— :' ' la of dimethylhydrazine? The organic solvent thiophene is a carbon—hydrogen— sulfur compound that yields C02, H20, and 802 on complete combustion. When subjected to combustion Nomenclature 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. Name these compounds: (a) 810; (b) ZnS; (c) KzCrO4; CSZSO4; (E) szO:;; F82(SO4)3; (h) (NH4)2HPO4; (i) Ca(HSOg)2; (j) Cu(OI—I)2; (k) HNO3; (1) KClO4; (m) HBI‘Og; (n) H3P03. Name these compounds: (a) Ba(l\l03)2; (b) HNOZ; (c) Cr02; (d) K103: (e) LiCN; (f) K10; (g) Fe(OH)2; (h) Ca(H2PO4)2; H3PO4; NaHSO4; N82C1‘207; NH4C2H302; MgCZO4; (1‘1) N612C204. Assign suitable names to the compounds (a) C82; (b) SiF4; (c) C1135; (d) N205; (e) 8136; (f) IzClé. Assign suitable names to the compounds (a) ICl; (:ng; (C) SE4; BI'F5; (E) N204; S4N4. Write formulas for the compounds: (a) aluminum sulfate; (b) ammonium dichromate; (c) silicon tetra- fluoride; ((1) iron(III) oxide; (e) tricarbon disulfide; (f) cobalt(ll) nitrate; (g) strontium nitrite; (h) hydro- bromic acid; (i) iodic acid; (j) phosphorus dichloride trifluoride. Oxidation States 51. Indicate the oxidation state of the underlined element in (a) EH42 (b) 374; (C) Nazgz; (d) §2H302_; (9) E0427 52. Indicate the oxidation state of S in (a) 80326; (b) 520321 (c) 82082"; (d) H804"; (e) S4062”. 53. Chromium forms three principal oxides. Write appropriate formulas for these compounds in 54. which the oxidation states of Cr are +3, +4, and + respectively. Nitrogen forms five oxides in which its oxidati states are +1, +2, +3, +4, and +5, respectively. Wrif appropriate formulas for these compounds. Hydrates 65. 66. 67. Without performing detailed calculations, indicate which of the following hydrates has the greatest % H20 mass: CUSO4 ' 5 H20, CI‘2(SO4)3 ' H20, ' 6 H20, and LiC2H302 ' 2 Without performing detailed calculations, determine the hydrate of NaZSO3 that contains almost exactly 50% H20, by mass. Anhydrous CuSO4 can be used to dry liquids in which it is insoluble. The CuSO4 is converted to CuSO4 - 5 H20, which can be filtered off from the liq- uid. What is the minimum mass of anhydrous CuSO4 needed. to remove 12.6 g 1-120 from a tankful of gasoline? Organic Compou'nfld's ahd 'No'mé'riclatu'ré 71. Which of the following names is most appropriate for the molecule with the structure shown below? (a) butyl alcohol, (b) 2-butanol, (c) l-butanol, (d) isopentyl alcohol. HHOHH “‘31—???” H H H H 73. Which of the following structures are isomers? (a) CH3—CH—CH2——-OH (b) CH3—CH—CH2—CH2—OH | CH3 EH3 (c) CH3—CH2—CH—CH2—OH (a) CH3—CIIH—CH2-—O———CH3 CH3 (9) 0H3"— CH— CH2— CH— CH3 CH3 0H 74. Which of the following structures are isomers? (a) CH3—CH—CH2—Cl | (b) CH3—CH—CH2—CH3 | CH2C1 (0) CH3" CH — CHCICH3 CH3 (d) CH3—CH—CH2—CH—CH3 | | CH3 c1 75. Write the condensed structural formulas for the or—- ganic compounds: (a) heptane (b) propanoic acid (c) 2—methyl-1-pentanol (d) fluoroethane 76. Write the condensed structural formulas for the or- ganic compounds: (a) octane (b) heptanoic acid ((2) 3-hexanol (d) 2-chlorobutane ...
View Full Document

Page1 / 11

Prob_Chap3 - mugged... Constant .5..." the 'Malé...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 11. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online